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United States Naval Academy

United States Naval Academy

The United States Naval Academy, located in Annapolis, Maryland, is a premier training institution offering a comprehensive 4-year midshipmen course. It was established in 1845 by George Bancroft, the then-Secretary of the U.S. Navy.To date, more than 60,000 young men and women have graduated from the academy. Many of these graduates have worked up their way to earn a special place in the nation’s pride and history.The academy offers the latest academic and professional training, keeping abreast with the cutting-edge technologies utilized in naval warfare. All students are treated equally, irrespective of their race, religion, or sex.The training program begins with Plebe Summer, which is the initial training program designed to familiarize the new arrivals with the naval life. The four-year immersion program involves comprehensive classroom and field training.The professional courses include naval science, engineering, navigation and weapons systems. Additionally, courses in leadership, ethics and military law provide the necessary leadership skills and sense of responsibility, which are the absolute qualities needed for an upper class midshipman and a commissioned officer.Leadership skills are further groomed by the academy’s athletic program. The trainees are encouraged to participate in a variety of athletic events to make them fit and fine.The strenuous physical training of the Naval Academy is complemented by its quality academic education. The curriculum includes courses in engineering, science, mathematics, humanities, and social science.Apart from the general subjects, the students can choose a subject for a major. The students excelling in the academic studies have the opportunity for enrolling in special scholarship and honors programs.The United States Naval Academy boasts state-of-the-art facilities and equipment such as a propulsion lab, wind tunnels, towing tanks, sub-critical nuclear reactor, oceanographic research vessel, Cassegrain reflector telescope, and a 12-meter satellite earth station.The Naval Academy is accredited by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle State Association of Colleges and Schools. Additionally, six of the engineering majors are professionally accredited by the Engineering Accreditation Commission of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET).A highlight of the four-year training program is the eight weeks of annual summer training. Starting with the initial Plebe Summer program, the summer trainings are held at the end of each academic year, proceeding through Third class, Second class and finally First class.Specialized trainings on ships, submarines, and naval crafts are given, along with simulations of naval operations. Here, the trainees can choose their areas of specialization such as surface warship, submarine, aircraft carrier, or aviation squadron.On completion of the 4-year training program, the graduates are commissioned as an ensign in the Navy or a second lieutenant in the Marine Corps.


Records of the United States Naval Academy [USNA]

Established: In the Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography, effective July 1, 1850, pursuant to recommendations of a board appointed by the Secretary of the Navy, September 4, 1849, to improve course of instruction at the Naval School.

Predecessor Agencies:

In the Department of the Navy:

Transfers: To Bureau of Navigation, July 1, 1862 to direct supervision of the Secretary of the Navy, March 1, 1867, except routine administrative and financial affairs retained by Bureau of Navigation to Bureau of Navigation, June 25, 1889 to Bureau of Naval Personnel, May 13, 1942 to Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (OCNO), 1971 to Chief of Naval Training, OCNO, 1972 to OCNO, 1976- .

Functions: Provides academic, military, and professional instruction to prepare naval cadets for commissions as regular officers in the U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps.

Finding Aids: Geraldine N. Phillips and Aloha South, comps., Records of the United States Naval Academy, Inv. 11 (1975) reprinted with additions in National Archives microfiche edition of preliminary inventories.

Related Records: Record copies of publications of the United States Naval Academy in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government. Records of the Naval Academy Division, Bureau of Navigation, in RG 24, Records of the Bureau of Naval Personnel.

RECORD TYPES RECORD LOCATIONS QUANTITIES
Textual Records Annapolis, MD 714 cu. ft.
Video Recordings Annapolis, MD 53 items
Sound Recordings Annapolis, MD 174 items
Machine-Readable Records College Park, MD 16 data sets
Still Pictures Annapolis, MD 8,519 images

Note: Address reference inquiries on all but machine-readable records to the William W. Jeffries Memorial Archives, Nimitz Library, U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402-5033.

405.2 RECORDS OF THE OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT
1845-1983
699 lin. ft.

History: Naval School at Fort Severn, Annapolis, MD, established by Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft, July 1845, and placed under his direct supervision. School site transferred from War Department to Navy Department by General Order 40, War Department, August 15, 1845. Comdr. Franklin Buchanan, who had developed the curriculum of the proposed school pursuant to a letter from the Secretary of the Navy, August 7, 1845, was named its first superintendent, and assumed command September 3, 1845. School opened October 10, 1845. Redesignated USNA and placed under Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography, 1850. SEE 405.1.

405.2.1 Correspondence

Textual Records (in Annapolis): Registers of letters sent and received, 1888-1906. Letters sent, 1845-1911, with partial indexes. Letters sent by Superintendent George S. Blake, 1857-65. Letters sent to the Navy Department and its subordinate units, 1864-1908 USNA personnel and cadets, 1881-1908 the Congress, 1888-98 and various individuals, 1885-88. Letters received, 1845-1906. Miscellaneous letters received, with other types of records interfiled, 1845-1920. General correspondence, 1907-59 (336 ft.), with indexes (108 ft.).

Microfilm Publications: M945, M949, M994, M1018.

Related Records: Letters received by the Secretary of the Navy from the Superintendent of the Academy, 1847-84, in RG 45, Naval Records Collection of the Office of Naval Records and Library.

405.2.2 Directives

Textual Records (in Annapolis): Orders and other issuances of the Superintendent, 1850-1928, with indexes. USNA orders, 1911-38 standing orders, 1939-53 special orders, 1923-75 instructions, 1954-72 notices, 1908-71 regulations, 1847-1981 and admissions regulations and examinations, 1879-1965. Brigade and regimental orders, 1909-20. Bureau of Navigation issuances, 1924-30.

405.2.3 Administrative records

Textual Records (in Annapolis): Records relating to candidates for admission, including reports of academic and medical examinations, 1846-76, 1899. Records relating to conduct and discipline, 1846-1908 academic and class standing, 1846-1925 and sea service of midshipmen and cadets, 1882-1916. Records relating to academy officers and personnel, 1846-1907 pay, accounts, and other fiscal matters, 1845-1924 and buildings and grounds, 1858-1910.

Microfilm Publications: M991.

Related Records: Applications and registers of appointment as midshipmen in RG 45, Naval Records Collection of the Office of Naval Records and Library.

405.2.4 Records of reserve training groups

History: From July 5, 1917, to January 31, 1919, five classes of reserve officers trained for service in World War I. From February 14, 1941, to April 30, 1945, 12 classes of naval reservists received similar training to prepare for duty during World War II.

Textual Records (in Annapolis): Correspondence of the Director of Training and his assistants, 1917-19, with indexes. Records relating to enrollment, activities, and performance of trainees, 1917-19. General correspondence, 1941-45. Record cards and other records relating to appointment, health, and performance of trainees, 1941-45.

405.2.5 Miscellaneous records

Textual Records (in Annapolis): Minutes of the U.S. Naval Monument Association, 1865-67 and the Naval Academy Officers' Club, 1897-99, 1908-11, 1921-34. Annual Register of the U.S. Naval Academy, 1858-1981. Command history, 1970-83 (70 vols.). USNA basic catalog, 1926-56 (with gaps), 1958-83 catalog of courses, 1931-65 annual curriculum, 1946-55 and semi-annual schedule of courses, 1965-81. Catalog of the U.S. Navy Postgraduate School, 1915, 1938-51. Miscellaneous USNA publications, 1916-81, including USNA telephone directory, 1939- 81.

405.3 RECORDS OF THE OFFICE OF THE COMMANDANT OF MIDSHIPMEN
1845-1984
86 lin. ft.

405.3.1 General records

Textual Records (in Annapolis): Letters sent, 1861-63, 1884-90, 1902-11. Memorandums, 1911-14. Orders and other issuances, 1875- 1911. Logbook ("Journal") of the officer of the day, 1845-1981 (203 vols.).

405.3.2 Records of the Office of Professional Development
relating to annual summer practice cruises

Textual Records (in Annapolis): Press copies of letters sent, 1883-92, 1894-1902. Registers of letters sent and received, 1910. General correspondence, 1910-11, 1914-16. Correspondence of the Commander, Midshipmen's Practice Squadron, 1927-28. Press copies of orders issued, 1892-1902. Class reports, 1904-16. Logbooks ("Journals") of cruises aboard U.S.S. Plymouth, June-August 1859, June-September 1860.

405.3.3 Records of the Office of Midshipmen Activities

Textual Records (in Annapolis): Records relating to the annual Naval Academy Foreign Affairs Conference, 1959-80 and to activities of the Masqueraders, the midshipmen theatrical group, 1867-1981. Miscellaneous midshipmen publications, 1869-1984, including Drag's Handbook, 1955-74 The Log, 1913-83 The Log Splinter, 1950-65 Lucky Bag, 1894-1983, Reef Points, 1906-84 and The Trident, 1924-72.

405.4 RECORDS OF THE OFFICE OF THE ACADEMIC DEAN
1866-1970
36 lin. ft.

Textual Records (in Annapolis): Instructions, orders, and examination questions of the Department of Ethics and English Studies, 1866-73. Records relating to work done in the Department of English Studies, History, and Law, including examination questions, 1873-82 lesson plans, 1878-84 and grade reports, 1882-1903. Records of the Department of English and Law, consisting of letters sent, 1905-8 and a notebook kept by Midshipman T.J. Reidy relating to instruction in that department, 1903-4. Issuances, 1907-15, and examination questions, 1913-17, of the Department of English. Subject correspondence and other records of the Department of English, History, and Government, 1917-70 (22 ft.).

405.5 RECORDS OF SUBORDINATE OFFICES
1863-1990
21 lin. ft.

405.5.1 Records of the Senior Medical Officer

Textual Records (in Annapolis): USNA Hospital letter books, 1865- 81. Press copies of letters sent, 1882-1909. Letters received, 1867-1907. Register of medical reports, 1906-7. Registers of physical examinations of midshipmen and apprentices, 1863-85 candidates for admission and for promotion, 1875-85 and midshipmen and cadets admitted to the USNA, 1886-1916. Registers of physical examination of rejected candidates for admission, 1911-20, with related correspondence, 1917-20. Registers of patients at the USNA Hospital, 1884-1906, with name index, 1904- 5. Logbook ("Journal") of the medical officer of the day, 1911- 23. Medical journals of practice ships, 1904-6.

405.5.2 Records of the Officer in Charge of Buildings and Grounds

Textual Records (in Annapolis): Letters sent, 1875-79, 1886, 1895-1911, with indexes. Letters sent relating to work on academy buildings, 1882-84, 1904-7.

Related Records: Sketches and designs of USNA buildings in RG 71, Records of the Bureau of Yards and Docks. 405.5.3 Records of the Command Chaplain

Textual Records (in Annapolis): Chaplain's register, 1882-1950. Chaplain's registers of marriages, 1951-90 baptisms and visiting clergy, 1951-76 burials, 1951-89 church services, 1960-75 and offerings, 1951-52. Minutes of the Chapel Guild, 1915-73, including membership lists, 1949-65.

405.6 RECORDS OF BOARDS
1836-1981
18 lin. ft.

405.6.1 Records of the Board for the Examination of Midshipmen

Textual Records (in Annapolis): Journals of proceedings, 1836-80, and related records, 1872.

405.6.2 Records of the Academic Board

Textual Records (in Annapolis): Minutes, 1845-1979, with partial indexes. General records, 1845-1959.

405.6.3 Records of the Board of Visitors

Textual Records (in Annapolis): Letters sent, 1909-14. Letters received, 1909-13. Journals, 1863-1903. Minutes and other records, 1907-14. Reports of the board, 1851-1981.

Related Records: Additional records of the Board of Visitors in RG 24, Records of the Bureau of Naval Personnel.

405.6.4 Records of other boards

Textual Records (in Annapolis): Letters sent and reports relating to boards of inquiry, 1874-82. Proceedings of boards to investigate hazing and other misconduct of cadets and staff, 1866-1923. Proceedings of the court of inquiry to investigate alleged frauds committed by midshipmen in the annual examinations of 1915, June 7-July 24, 1915.

405.7 VIDEO RECORDINGS (GENERAL)
1935-91
53 items

Video Recordings (in Annapolis): Graduation exercises, interviews, parades, ceremonies, telecasts, and documentaries about the USNA.

Finding Aids: Subject index available at USNA.

405.8 SOUND RECORDINGS (GENERAL)
1950-91
174 items

Sound Recordings (in Annapolis): Graduation exercises, addresses, lectures, meetings, and conferences.

Finding Aids: Subject index available at USNA.

405.9 MACHINE-READABLE RECORDS (GENERAL)
1987-90
16 data sets

Lists of students and of courses, and non-academic and transcript information on the USNA classes of 1987 (4 data sets), 1988 (4 data sets), 1989 (4 data sets), and 1990 (4 data sets), all with supporting documentation.

405.10 STILL PICTURES (GENERAL)
1845-1983
8,519 images

Photographic Prints (in Annapolis): Superintendents, advisory groups, faculty and staff, midshipmen's activities, buildings and grounds, instructional equipment, support activities, prominent alumni, special events, and the U.S. Navy Postgraduate School.

Finding Aids: Name and subject index available at USNA.

Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 pages.

This Web version is updated from time to time to include records processed since 1995.


Naval Academy History
The Naval Academy History Collection, through primary and secondary sources, tells the stories of the founding and organization of the Academy, its early days of operations, the experiences of some of its first students and faculty, the centennial celebrations of the Academy, and the genesis of the school seal. Included in the collection are early published and unpublished histories, personal recollections, private correspondence, guidebooks, and several of the founding documents of the Academy. .

The Somers Affair
The U.S.S. Somers (brig), an experimental schoolship for naval apprentices, sailed from New York on September 13, 1842, Commander Alexander Slidell Mackenzie in command. The vessel&rsquos course took it first to.

Army-Navy Football
On November 28, 1890 the cadets of the United States Military Academy and the midshipmen of the United States Naval Academy met at West Point to play the first Army-Navy football game.

Advisory Groups
The Advisory Groups subgroup includes group and individual member photographs of the Academic Advisory Board, who are faculty members that guide the academy's curriculum, and the Board of Visitors, who serves in a capacity similar to most universities' boards of trustees and is composed of both civilian and military members. .

Buildings & Grounds
In addition to photographs of the existing academy, the Buildings and Grounds subgroup includes images of former buildings and views of the yard. The subgroup also contains images of monuments, memorials, historical architectural plans, and aerial views of the academy. There are also some photographs of Cemetery Point and the buildings and grounds on what is now Naval Support Activity Annapolis on the north bank of the Severn. .

Faculty and Staff
In addition to its holdings of textual records, Record Group 405, Records of the United States Naval Academy, includes over 8,500 historic photographic prints. The photographs represent images of the Academy's superintendents.

Midshipmen
In addition to its holdings of textual records, Record Group 405, Records of the United States Naval Academy, includes over 8,500 historic photographic prints. The photographs represent images of the Academy's superintendents.

Superintendents
In addition to its holdings of textual records, Record Group 405, Records of the United States Naval Academy, includes over 8,500 historic photographic prints. The photographs represent images of the Academy's superintendents.

Annual Register of the United States Naval Academy
Originally published as the Official Register of the Officers and Acting Midshipmen of the United States Naval Academy (see below), the register's primary function is to list the academy midshipmen and their relative academic standing, as well as providing a directory of the academy's academic and command staff. At various times throughout its publication, the Annual Register also detailed the academy's curriculum, admissions regulations, entrance examination questions, award winners, and specifics of the summer practice cruises. The Annual Register of the United States Naval Academy ceased publication in 1970..

Official Register of the United States Naval Academy
The Official Register of the Officers and Acting Midshipmen of the United States Naval Academy was first published in 1858. In 1865, the Government Printing Office took over its publication under the new title, Annual Register of the United States Naval Academy (see above), but the publications have always had the same primary function listed in the Annual Register's description. .

Class Photograph Albums
Prior to the publication of the first issue of the Lucky Bag in 1894, the role of the yearbook at the Naval Academy was played largely by class photograph albums. These albums, many of which are the product of the studios of F. M. Zuller and F. Gutekunst, consist of portraits of individual midshipmen, as well as occasional photographs of Naval Academy faculty, buildings, and grounds. Consisting of 23 volumes, the collection spans from the Class of 1860 through the Class of 1902. .

The Lucky Bag
In 1894, the inaugural issue of the Lucky Bag was produced by an editorial board of five midshipmen and has been published annually by the First Class of each succeeding class of midshipmen. The Lucky Bag, from its first issue through the 1970 issue has been digitized as part of a partnership with the Naval Postgraduate School, the Naval War College, and the Internet Archive..

Naval Academy Catalog
The Naval Academy Catalog, known originally as the Catalogue of Information, details the Naval Academy's curriculum and course offerings. The catalog also offers information on admissions requirements, Naval Academy life, faculty.

Josiah G. Beckwith Letters
The Josiah G. Beckwith Letters, comprising 1 linear inch of documentation, span from February 1853 until January 1855. Produced during his two years as a midshipman in Annapolis, Beckwith's letters discuss various aspects of student life at the Naval Academy, including academics, conduct and discipline, summer cruises, and the activities of classmates..

Roscoe C. Bulmer Journal
The journal was kept by Midshipman Roscoe C. Bulmer while on a cruise aboard the cruiser U.S.S. San Francisco. The journal, which spans from May 26, 1895 to April 16, 1896, includes detailed descriptions of the various European ports. The volume is illustrated by numerous photographs, mechanical drawings of ships and equipment, and maps (both printed and hand drawn)..

William Frederick Durand Journal
The William Frederick Durand U.S.S. Mayflower Journal of Practice Cruise spans from June until August of 1879. The volume, kept by William Frederick Durand, is an account of the First Class summer practice cruise at the United States Naval Academy aboard the screw tug U.S.S. Mayflower. The journal also features a list of officers and cadet engineers (page 1) and a drawing of the Mayflower affixed to the last page of the journal..

John Porter Merrell Johnston Letters
The John Porter Merrel Johnston Letters were written by Johnston while a midshipman at the United States Naval Academy. The collection consists of almost 200 items of correspondence spanning the period of June 1933 through May 1937 and a 1932 group photo showing his father, Captain R. H. Johnston. The collection is composed of letters, a few telegrams and greeting cards. .

Henry Mylin Kieffer Scrapbook
The Henry Mylin Kieffer Scrapbook spans from 1907 until 1911. The scrapbook focuses primarily on Kieffer's athletic, social, and religious activities while a midshipman at the Naval Academy. The scrapbook is composed of photographs, press clippings, correspondence, event programs, visiting cards, invitations, original artwork, and diary entries. .

Richard Mueller Nixon Letters
The Richard Mueller Nixon Letters, comprising 10 linear inches of documentation, span from 1923 to 1930, with the overwhelming majority written between 1926 and 1930, while Nixon was a midshipman at the United States Naval Academy..

War of 1812
The War of 1812 Collection is a joint venture between Special Collections & Archives, Nimitz Library and the United States Naval Academy Museum. The collection consists of journals kept by American sailors, the diaries of British officers.

From Preble Hall - The Oliver Hazard Perry Collection
"We have met the enemy and they are ours." Those historic words, written by Oliver Hazard Perry to General William Henry Harrison, announced the American victory over the British at the Battle of Lake Erie on September 10, 1813.

Daniel D. T. Nestell Papers
The Daniel D. T. Nestell Papers, spanning from 1852 to 1911, focus primarily on service and experiences of Nestell as an Assistant Surgeon in the United States Navy during the Civil War. The papers describe naval career of Daniel Nestel.

Francis A. Osbourn Papers
The Francis Osbourn Papers, comprising .5 inches of documentation, primarily span the career of Francis Osbourn in the Twentieth Regiment Indiana Volunteers and the Sixth Regiment U.S. Colored Troops, from 1862 to 1866. The papers, mostly letters, focus on duties, experiences and observations, and requests for items from home by Osbourn..

John E. Hart Letters
The John E. Hart Letters, consisting of 1.5 linear inches of documents, span the period from 1861 to 1863. The letters focus on the time spent by Hart aboard U.S.S. Vincennes and U.S.S. Albatross, both of the West Gulf Blockading Squadron.

American Propaganda in Japan
Psychological Warfare has become an inextricable part of any modern military campaign. The battles for the hearts and minds of both allies and opposition can prove just as vital as those fought on the ground, at sea, or in the air.

Japanese Propaganda in the Philippines
Immediately following their attack on Pearl Harbor, the military leaders of the Empire of Japan turned their sights on the Phillipines. As naval and ground assault forces pressed their attacks, the Japanese forces also engaged in psychological warfare.

C.H. Paulsen Papers
The C. H. Paulsen Photograph collection consists of 62 photographs taken by Carley Herbert Paulsen, United States Naval Reservist, during the aftermath of the Allied Invasion of Normandy in June, 1944. The photographs are of Omaha, Utah.

Battle Reports and Analyses
Throughout the Second World War, the United States Navy issued various information bulletins to the officers of the Fleet in order to promulgate vital information on and analysis of recent wartime operations. Combined with action reports filed by commanding officers throughout the Fleet, these documents offer an in-depth accounting of Naval actions in the Pacifc and Alaska, Naval support for the Allied invasions of Europe, and amphibious operations in both the European and Pacific theaters..

Combat Photographs
Throughout the Second World War, United States Navy combat photographers cataloged a conflict that defined a generation. Embedded in units and ships throughout the fleet, the photographers captured timeless images of aerial operations.

Edwin Jesse DeHaven Papers
The Edwin Jesse DeHaven Papers, comprising ten linear inches of documents, spans from 1832 to 1928. The papers document, in varying levels of detail, the naval career of Edwin De Haven, with special focus on the Grinnell Arctic Expedition.

Contents

The Navy operates the Naval Postgraduate School and the Naval War College separately. The Naval Academy Preparatory School (NAPS), in Newport, Rhode Island, is the official prep school for the Naval Academy. The Naval Academy Foundation provides post-graduate high school education for a year of preparatory school before entering the academy for a very limited number of applicants. There are several preparatory schools and junior colleges throughout the United States that host this program. [6] [ clarification needed ]

The first nautical school for officers was conceived by Commodore Arthur Sinclair in 1819 while in command of the Norfolk Navy Yard. Due to his zeal and perseverance, the "Nautical School" was opened on board the frigate Guerriere on 3 Dec 1821 with between 40 and 50 midshipmen attached to the ship. The curriculum was diversified with Naval Tactics, Astronomy, Geography, French, History, English Grammar, and International Relations. The school operated until 1828, when Guerriere was ordered to duty in the Pacific. [7] It was from that small start that the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis grew. [8]

The history of the Academy can be divided into four eras: [9] 1) use of original Fort Severn 1845–1861, 2) "Porter's Academy" 1865–1903, 3) "Flagg Academy" 1903–1941, 4) modern era 1941–present.

Identity Edit

The academy's Latin motto is Ex Scientia Tridens, which means "Through Knowledge, Sea Power." It appears on a design devised by the lawyer, writer, editor, encyclopedist and naval academy graduate (1867), Park Benjamin, Jr. It was adopted by the Navy Department in 1898 due to the efforts of another graduate (also 1867) and collaborator, Jacob W. Miller. Benjamin states: [10]

The seal or coat-of-arms of the Naval Academy has for its crest a hand grasping a trident, below which is a shield bearing an ancient galley coming into action, bows on, and below that an open book, indicative of education, and finally bears the motto, 'Ex Scientia Tridens' (From knowledge, sea power).

Early years Edit

The institution was founded as the Naval School on 10 October 1845 by Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft. The campus was established at Annapolis on the grounds of the former U.S. Army post Fort Severn. The school opened with 50 midshipman students and seven professors. The decision to establish an academy on land may have been in part a result of the Somers Affair, an alleged mutiny involving the Secretary of War's son that resulted in his execution at sea. Commodore Matthew Perry had a considerable interest in naval education, supporting an apprentice system to train new seamen, and helped establish the curriculum for the United States Naval Academy. He was also a vocal proponent of modernization of the navy.

Originally a course of study for five years was prescribed. Only the first and last were spent at the school with the other three being passed at sea. The present name was adopted when the school was reorganized in 1850 and placed under the supervision of the chief of the Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography. Under the immediate charge of the superintendent, the course of study was extended to seven years with the first two and the last two to be spent at the school and the intervening three years at sea. The four years of study were made consecutive in 1851 and practice cruises were substituted for the three consecutive years at sea. The first class of naval academy students graduated on 10 June 1854. They were considered as passed midshipmen until 1912, when graduates were first sworn in as officers. [11]

In 1850, Edward Seager joined the faculty as the first Instructor of Drawing, and he also served as the first fencing instructor. He held the position of Teacher of the Art of Defence from 1851 to 1859. [12]

In 1860, the Tripoli Monument was moved to the academy grounds. Later that year in August, the model of the USS Somers experiment was resurrected when USS Constitution, then 60 years old, was recommissioned as a school ship for the fourth-class midshipmen after a conversion and refitting begun in 1857. She was anchored at the yard, and the plebes lived on board the ship to immediately introduce them to shipboard life and experiences. [13]

The American Civil War Edit

The Civil War was disruptive to the Naval Academy. Southern sympathy ran high in Maryland. Although riots broke out, Maryland did not declare secession. The United States government was planning to move the school, when the sudden outbreak of hostilities forced a quick departure. Almost immediately the three upper classes were detached and ordered to sea, and the remaining elements of the academy were transported to Fort Adams in Newport, Rhode Island by the USS Constitution in April 1861, where the academy was set up in temporary facilities and opened in May. [14] The Annapolis campus, meanwhile, was turned into a United States Army Hospital. [15]

The United States Navy was stressed by the situation - 24% of its officers resigned to join the Confederate States Navy, including 95 graduates and 59 midshipmen, [13] along with many key leaders who influenced USNA's founding. As the first superintendent of the United States Naval Observatory, Commander Matthew Fontaine Maury, who advocated [16] for creating the United States Naval Academy also resigned his commission.

The first superintendent, Admiral Franklin Buchanan, joined the Confederate States Navy as its first and primary admiral. Captain Sidney Smith Lee, the second commandant of midshipmen, [17] and older brother of Robert E. Lee, left Federal service in 1861 for the Confederate States Navy. Lieutenant William Harwar Parker, CSN, class of 1848, and instructor at USNA, joined the Virginia State Navy, and then went on to become the superintendent of the Confederate States Naval Academy.

Lieutenant Charles "Savez" Read may have been "anchor man" (graduated last) in the class of 1860, but his later service to the Confederate States Navy included defending New Orleans, service on CSS Arkansas and CSS Florida, and command of a series of captured Union ships that culminated in seizing the US Revenue Cutter Caleb Cushing in Portland, Maine. Lieutenant James Iredell Waddell, CSN, a former instructor at the US Naval Academy, commanded the CSS Shenandoah.

The midshipmen and faculty returned to Annapolis in the summer of 1865, just after the war ended.

Porter's Academy — From the Civil War to the Spanish-American War Edit

Civil War hero Admiral David Dixon Porter became superintendent in 1865. He found the infrastructure at Annapolis a shambles, the result of ill military use during the War. Porter attempted to restore the facilities. He concentrated on recruiting naval officers as opposed to civilians, a change of philosophy. He recruited teachers Stephen B. Luce, future admirals Winfield Scott Schley, George Dewey, and William T. Sampson. The midshipman battalion consisted of four companies. These were bunked in a single wooden building containing 100 rooms, one company to a floor. They held dress parades every evening except Sunday. Students were termed "cadets", though sometimes "cadet midshipmen" other appellations were used. Porter began organized athletics, usually intramural at the time. [18]

Antoine Joseph Corbesier, an immigrant from Belgium, was appointed to the position of Assistant Swordmaster in 1864, and then Swordmaster at USNA in October 1865. He coached Navy fencers in intercollegiate competition from 1896, when the Naval Academy joined the Intercollegiate Fencing Association, until 1914, when he retired. By special act of Congress, he was commissioned a 1st Lieutenant in the Marine Corps on 4 March 1914. He died on 26 March 1915 and is buried on Hospital Point.

In 1867, indoor plumbing and water was supplied to the family quarters. In 1868, the figurehead from USS Delaware, known as "Tecumseh" was erected in the yard. Class rings were first issued in 1869. Weekly dances were held. Wags called the school "Porter's Dancing Academy." President U.S. Grant distributed diplomas to the class of 1869. [18] Porter ensured continued room for expansion by overseeing the purchase of 113 acres (46 ha) across College Creek, later known as hospital point.

In 1871, color competition began, along with the selection of the color company, and a "color girl." [18]

In the 1870s, cuts in the military budget resulted in graduating much smaller classes. In 1872, 25 graduated. Eight of these made the Navy a career. [18] The third class physically hazed the fourth class so ruthlessly that Congress passed an anti-hazing law in 1874. Hazing continued in more stealthy forms. [18]

John H. Conyers of South Carolina was the first African-American admitted on 21 September 1872. [19] After his arrival, he was subject to severe, ongoing hazing, including verbal torment, and beatings. His classmates even attempted to drown him. [20] Three cadets were dismissed as a result, but the abuse, including shunning, continued in more subtle forms and Conyers finally resigned in October 1873. [21]

In 1875, Albert A. Michelson, class of 1873, returned to teach. He began his experiments with optics and the physics of light, which resulted in the first accurate measure of the speed of light. [22] [ clarification needed ] [18]

In 1874, the curriculum was altered to study naval topics in the final two years at the academy. In 1878, the academy was awarded a gold medal for academics at the Universal Exposition in Paris. [18]

Many firsts for minorities occurred during this period. In 1877, Kiro Kunitomo, a Japanese citizen, graduated from the academy. [23] [24] And then in 1879, Robert F. Lopez was the first Hispanic-American to graduate from the academy.

In the late 19th century, Congress required the academy to teach a formal course in hygiene, the only course required by Congress of any military academy. Tradition holds that a congressman was particularly disgusted by the appearance of a midshipman returned from cruise. [ citation needed ]

In 1890, Navy adopted the goat mascot after winning its first football game with Army. [11]

The Flagg Academy- Spanish–American War to WW I Edit

The Spanish–American War of 1898 greatly increased the academy's importance and the campus was almost wholly rebuilt and much enlarged between 1899 and 1906. The ground on which most of the Academy sat was dredged from the surrounding bodies of water and consisted of silt. This was too fragile for the newer heavy stone buildings. Pilings were sunk from 100 feet (30 m) to 400 feet (120 m) deep. Some wooden with iron caps modern ones of steel. [9] Today's campus dates from that era. In 1905, Isherwood Hall, containing the Department of Marine Engineering, was constructed. [25]

Prior to that era, about 43 men entered annually. There were 114 joining the class of 1905, 201 with the class of 1908. [26]

The academy built a modern hospital in 1907, the fourth in sequence, on what is today called "Hospital Point." [27]

In 1910, the Academy established its own dairy farm. This was closed in 1998. [28]

The Aviation School Edit

On 23 August 1911, the Navy officers on flight duty at Hammondsport, New York, and Dayton, Ohio, were ordered to report for duty at the Engineering Experiment Station, Naval Academy, "in connection with the test of gasoline motors and other experimental work in the development of aviation, including instruction at the aviation school" being set up on Greenbury Point, Annapolis. [29] The "aerodrome" at Greensbury Point sat on 1000 square feet of land and consisted of a building with a rubber-reinforced roof containing three hangars (one for each of the newly purchased airplanes), a workshop, an office, and several bunk rooms. All three airplanes cost a total of $14,000. Over 100 officers applied for aviation duty prior to August 1911. Swimming was among a set of other qualifications that a pilot candidate must have passed before being accepted to aviation duty. Pilot qualifications were in accordance with Federation Aeronautique Internationale (FAI) standards. In the presence of a committee of the Aero Club of America, a pilot candidate had to fly five figure eights around two flags buoyed 1500 feet apart then land within 150 feet of an established mark. This course had to be completed twice. The test also required the prospective aviator to climb to a minimum altitude of 150 ft (officially 50 meters). It was estimated by CAPT Washington Irving Chambers that a student could qualify as a new pilot in about a month, weather permitting. All students wore life preservers. The control wheel of the Curtiss machines featured a "shift control" where the controls could be "thrown" between the student and instructor at any time. The Wright machine was delivered to Greenbury by August 1911, but was not yet configured with water gear. [30] Navy flight training moved to NAS Pensacola, Florida, in January 1914. [31]

In 1912, Reina Mercedes, sunk at the Battle of Santiago de Cuba, was raised and used as the "brig" ship for the academy. [32]

By 1912, the midshipmen were organized into a brigade, its current structure. [33] The prior organization was named a regiment. [34]

In 1914, the Midshipmen Drum and Bugle corps was formed and by 1922 it went defunct. They were revived in 1926. [35]

The brigade and faculty tripled during WWI. The 3rd and 4th wings of Bancroft Hall were built. [11]

In 1918, the great flu pandemic of 1918 infected about half the brigade (1,000 out of 2,000 men) ten midshipmen died. [11]

World War I to World War II Edit

With the advent of the automobile and improved roads, the Academy became a tourist attraction. [11]

At the 1920 summer Olympics men's 8+ rowing competition in Brussels, the Navy Academy rowing men's 8+ (The Wonder Crew) won the gold medal. US collegiate boats won the gold medal in the 8+ competition at the next seven Olympics - a standing record as of 2019 for consecutive gold medal wins by any nation in a particular sport.

The Naval Academy football team played the University of Washington in the Rose Bowl tying 14–14. In 1925, the second-class ring dance was started. In 1925, the Midshipmen Drum and Bugle Corps was formally reestablished. [35] In 1926, "Navy Blue and Gold", composed by organist and choirmaster J. W. Crosley, was first sung in public. It became a tradition to sing this alma mater song at the end of student and alumni gatherings such as pep rallies and football games, and on graduation day. In 1926, Navy won the national collegiate football championship title. In the fall of 1929, the Secretary of the Navy gave his approval for graduates to compete for Rhodes Scholarships. Six graduates were selected for that honor that same year. The Association of American Universities accredited the Naval Academy curriculum on 30 October 1930.

In 1930, the class of 1891 presented a bronze replica of Tecumseh to replace the deteriorating wooden figurehead that had been prominently displayed on campus. [18]

President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed into law an act of Congress (Public Law 73–21, 48 Stat. 73) on 25 May 1933 providing for the Bachelor of Science degree for Naval, Military, and Coast Guard Academies. Four years later, Congress authorized the superintendent to award a Bachelor of Science degree to all living graduates. Reserve officer training was re-established in anticipation of World War II in 1941.

In 1939, the first Yard patrol boat arrived. These were used to train midshipmen in ship handling. [37]

In 1940, the academy stopped using Reina Mercedes as a brig for disciplining midshipmen, and restricted them to Bancroft Hall, instead. [32]

In April 1941, superintendent Rear Admiral Russell Willson refused to allow the school's lacrosse team to play a visiting team from Harvard University because the Harvard team included an African-American player. Harvard's athletic director ordered the player home and the game was played on 4 April, as scheduled, which Navy won 12–0. [38]

In 1941, the 5th and 6th wings of Bancroft Hall were completed. [11] Landfill was made outboard of the hospital to create a sports field. Fill was made on the north side of the Severn to create an area for seaplanes. [39]

A total of 3,319 graduates were commissioned during World War II. Dr. Chris Lambertsen held the first closed-circuit oxygen SCUBA course in the United States for the Office of Strategic Services maritime unit at the academy on 17 May 1943. [40] [41] In 1945, A Department of Aviation was established. That year a Vice Admiral, Aubrey W. Fitch, became superintendent. The naval academy celebrated its centennial. During the century of its existence, roughly 18,563 midshipmen had graduated, including the class of 1946. [28]

The academy was accredited in 1947 by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education.

Modern era: World War II to present Edit

The academy and its support facilities became part of the Severn River Naval Command from 1941 to 1962. [42]

An accelerated course was given to midshipmen during the war years which affected classes entering during the war and graduating later. The students studied year around. This affected the class of 1948 most of all. For the only time, a class was divided by academic standing. 1948A graduated in June 1947 the remainder, called 1948B, a year later. [43]

From 1946 to 1961, N3N amphibious biplanes were used at the academy to introduce midshipmen to flying. [44]

On 3 June 1949, Wesley A. Brown, the sixth African-American to enter the academy, [20] became the first to graduate, followed several years later by Lawrence Chambers, who became the first African-American graduate to make flag rank. [45]

The 1950 Navy fencing team won the NCAA national championship.

The Navy eight-man rowing crew won the gold medal at 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki, Finland. They were also named National Intercollegiate Champions. [46] In 1955, the tradition of greasing Herndon Monument for plebes to climb to exchange their plebe "dixie cup" covers (hats) for a midshipman's cover started.

In 1957, the moored training ship Reina Mercedes, ruined by a hurricane, was scrapped. [32]

The 1959 fencing team won the NCAA national championship, and became the first to do so by placing first in all three weapons (foil, épée, and saber). All 3 fencers were selected for the 1960 Olympics team, as was head coach Andre Deladrier. The Navy–Marine Corps Memorial Stadium, funded by donations, was dedicated 26 September 1959.

From 1959 to 1973, land was reclaimed from the Chesapeake Bay and Severn River, removal of Isherwood, Melville, and Griffin Halls, and by moving the stadium off-campus. This allowed room for expansion of Bancroft Hall, and the addition of Mitscher, Michelson, Chauvenet, Alumni, Rickover, and Hopper Halls, and the Nimitz Library. Encroached parade grounds and athletic fields were moved riverside onto the newly filled areas. [47]

Joe Bellino (Class of 1961) was awarded the Heisman Trophy on 22 June 1960. In 1961, the Naval Academy Foreign Affairs Conference was started. The U.S. Department of the Interior designated the campus of the U.S. Naval Academy as a National Historic Landmark on 21 August 1961.

The 1962 fencing team won the NCAA national championship.

In 1963, Roger Staubach, Class of 1965, was awarded the Heisman Trophy.

In 1963, the academy changed from a marking system based on 4.0 to a letter grade. Midshipmen began referring to the statue of Tecumseh as the "god of 2.0" instead of "the god of 2.5", the former failing mark. [48]

The academy started the Trident Scholar Program in 1963. From 3 to 16 juniors are selected for independent study during their final year. [49]

Professor Samuel Massie became the first African-American faculty member in 1966. On 4 June 1969, the first designated engineering degrees were granted to qualified graduates of the Class of 1969. [46] During the period 1968 to 1972, the academy moved beyond engineering to include more than 20 majors. From 1845 to 1968, midshipmen studied identical courses, with the exception of a choice of foreign language. In 1970, the "James Forrestal Lecture" was created, named for the first U.S. Secretary of Defense in 1947/1949. This has resulted in various leaders speaking to midshipmen, including U.S. Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger, football coach Dick Vermeil, and Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia, and others. [50]

In 1972, Lieutenant Commander Georgia Clark became the first female officer instructor, and Dr. Rae Jean Goodman was appointed to the faculty as the first civilian woman. Later in 1972, a decision of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia terminated compulsory chapel attendance, a tradition which had been in effect since 1853. [51] In September 1973, the new expansive library facility complex was completed and named for Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, Class of 1905.

On 8 August 1975, Congress authorized women to attend service academies. The Class of 1980 was inducted with 81 female midshipmen. In 1980, the academy included "Hispanic/Latino" as a racial category for demographic purposes four women identified themselves as Hispanic in the class of 1981, and these women become the first Hispanic females to graduate from the academy: Carmel Gilliland (who had the highest class rank), Lilia Ramirez (who retired with the rank of commander), Ina Marie Gomez, and Trinora Pinto. [52] In 1979, the traditional "June Week" was renamed "Commissioning Week" because graduation had been moved earlier to May. [46]

In May 1980, Elizabeth Anne Belzer (later Rowe) became the first woman graduate. Janie L. Mines was the first U.S.N.A. African-American woman graduate. [53] On 23 May 1984, Kristine Holderied became the first woman to graduate at the head of the class. In addition, the Class of 1984 included the first naturalized Korean-American graduates, all choosing commissions in the U.S. Navy. The four Korean-American ensigns were Walter Lee, Thomas Kymn, Andrew Kim, and Se-Hun Oh.

In 1982, Isherwood, Griffin, and Melville Halls were demolished. [28]

On 30 July 1987, the Computing Sciences Accreditation Board (CSAB) granted accreditation for the Computer Science program. [46] In 1991, Midshipman Juliane Gallina, class of 1992, became the first woman brigade commander. On 29 January 1994, the first genderless service assignment was held. All billets were opened equally to men and women with the exception of special warfare and submarine duty.

On 12 March 1995, Lieutenant Commander Wendy B. Lawrence, Class of 1981, became a mission specialist in the space shuttle Endeavour. She is the first woman USNA graduate to fly in space.

To celebrate the 150th Anniversary of the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis (1845–1995), the U.S. Postal Service printed a commemorative postage stamp the First Day of Issue was 10 October 1995.

Freedom 7, America's first space capsule shot into sub-orbit in 1961, was placed on display at the visitor center as the centerpiece of the "Grads in Space" exhibit on 23 September 1998. The late Rear Admiral Alan Shepard, Class of 1945, had flown Mercury program capsule "Freedom 7" 116.5 miles (187.5 km) into space on 5 May 1961. His historic flight marked America's first step in the space race. [46]

On 11 September 2001, the academy lost 14 alumni in the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City and The Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia. The academy and its bounds was placed under unprecedented high security. [46]

In August 2007, Superintendent Vice Admiral Jeffrey Fowler changed academy policy to limit liberty, required more squad interaction to emphasize that "we are a nation at war." [54]

On 3 November 2007, the Navy football team defeated long-time rival Notre Dame for the first time in 43 years: 46–44 in triple overtime. The two teams have met every year since 1926 and continue a rivalry that became amicable when Notre Dame volunteered to open its facilities for training of naval officers in World War II. [55] The Navy was credited with saving the University of Notre Dame after its enrollment fell during World War II to about 250 students. The Navy trained 12,000 men to become officers. [56]

In November 2007, Memorial Hall was the venue for a 50-nation Annapolis Conference on a Palestinian-Israeli peace process discussion.

In 2017, hospital functions were moved across the Severn. [27]

    1850–1856. Placed in ordinary, guns, mast, sails, rigging were removed. 1862–1912 1862–1865 1862–1870 1855–6 and 1859–60 1865–1873. Steamer 1867–1884 [57] 1893–1894. Stationary. At Norfolk, Virginia – 1893–1896. The first ship to be specifically designed for training. The Academy roster outgrew the ship and it was retired. 1894–1899 1899–1912
  • USS Chesapeake 1900–1906. Renamed USS Severn (1898) in 1905. 1912–1957.

The student body is known as the Brigade of Midshipmen. Students attending the U.S. Naval Academy are appointed to the rank of midshipman and serve on active duty in that rank. "Naval Academy midshipmen are classified as officers of the line but are officers only in a qualified sense. They rank just below chief warrant officers." [58] [59]

Legally, midshipmen are a special grade of officer that ranks above the most senior enlisted grades (E-9) and below the lowest grade of chief warrant officer (W-2) in the Navy and Coast Guard (the Navy and Coast Guard discontinued the rank of warrant officer, WO-1, in 1975). Additionally, midshipmen rank below warrant officer (W-1) in the Marine Corps [60] and the Army, [61] and below second lieutenant (O-1) in the Air Force (the Air Force ceased appointing warrant officers in 1959 and the last USAF WO died in 2008). [62]

Midshipmen are classified not as freshmen, sophomores, juniors, and seniors, but as fourth class, third class, second class, and first class, respectively.

A member of the entering class—the fourth class, the lowest rank of midshipmen—is also known as a "plebe" (plural plebes). Because the first year at the Academy is one of transformation from a civilian into a military officer, plebes must conform to a number of rules and regulations not placed on their seniors—the upper three classes of midshipmen—and have additional tasks and responsibilities that disappear upon promotion to midshipman third class.

Third class midshipmen have been assimilated into the brigade and are treated with more respect because they are upperclassmen. They are commonly called "youngsters." Because of their new stature and rank, the youngsters are allowed such privileges as watching television, listening to music, watching movies, and napping.

Second class midshipmen are charged with training plebes. They report directly to the first class, and issue orders as necessary to carry out their responsibilities. Second class midshipmen are allowed to drive their own cars (but may not park them on campus) and are allowed to enter or exit the Yard (campus) in civilian attire (weekends only).

First class midshipmen have more freedoms and liberty in the brigade. While they must participate in mandatory sports and military activities and maintain academic standards, they are also charged with the leadership of the Brigade. They are commonly called "firsties". Firsties are allowed to park their cars on campus and have greater leave and liberty privileges than any other class. [63]

The Brigade is divided into two regiments of three battalions each. Five companies make up each battalion, for a total of 30 companies. The midshipman command structure is headed by a first class midshipman known as the brigade commander, chosen for outstanding leadership performance. He or she is responsible for much of the brigade's day-to-day activities as well as the professional training of midshipmen. Overseeing all brigade activities is the commandant of midshipmen, an active-duty Navy captain or Marine Corps colonel. Working for the commandant, experienced Navy and Marine Corps officers are assigned as company and battalion officers. [64]

Midshipmen at the Academy wear service dress uniforms similar to those of U.S. Navy officers, with shoulder-board and/or sleeve insignia varying by school year or midshipman officer rank. All wear gold anchor insignia on both lapel collars of the service dress blue jacket. Shoulder boards, worn on summer white, service/full dress white, and dinner dress white uniforms as well as a "soft shoulder board" version on the white, button-up shirt of the service/full dress blue uniform have a gold anchor and a number of slanted stripes indicating year, except for midshipman first class whose have a single, horizontal stripe and midshipman officers (also first class), whose shoulder boards have a small gold star in place of the anchor and have 1 through 6 horizontal stripes indicating their position.

On the winter and summer working uniform shirt, a freshman (Midshipman Fourth Class or "plebe") wears no collar insignia, a sophomore (Midshipman Third Class or "Youngster") wears a single fouled anchor on the right collar point, a Junior (Midshipman Second Class) fouled anchors on each collar point, and a Senior (Midshipman First Class or "Firstie") wears fouled anchors with perched eagles. First class midshipmen in officer billets replace those devices with their respective midshipman officer collar insignia.

Midshipman officer collar insignia are a series of gold bars, from the rank of Midshipman Ensign (one bar or stripe) to Midshipman Captain (six bars or stripes) in the Brigade of Midshipmen at the U.S. Naval Academy.

Depending on the season, midshipmen wear Summer Whites or Service Dress Blues as their dress uniform, and working blues as their daily class uniform. In 2008, the first class midshipmen wore the service khaki as the daily uniform, but this option was repealed following the graduation of the class of 2011. First class midshipmen may wear their service selection uniform on second semester "Warrior" Wednesdays (i.e., naval aviator and naval flight officer selectees wear flight suits submarine and surface warfare selectees wear coveralls or Navy Working Uniforms with their new command ballcaps Marine Corps selectees wear MARPAT camouflage utilities). A unique uniform consisting of a Navy blue double-breasted jacket with brass buttons and high collar, blue or white high-rise trousers (white worn during Graduation Week), and duty belt with silver NA buckle, is worn for formal parades during spring and autumn parade seasons.

During commissioning week (formerly known as "June week"), the uniform is summer whites.

The campus (or "Yard") has grown from a 40,000 square metres (9.9 acres) Army post named Fort Severn in 1845 to a 1.37 square kilometres (340 acres), or 1,375,640 square metres (339.93 acres), campus in the 21st century. By comparison, the United States Air Force Academy is 73 square kilometres (18,000 acres) and United States Military Academy is 65 square kilometres (16,000 acres).

Halls and principal buildings Edit

    is the largest building at the Naval Academy and the largest college dormitory in the world. [65] It houses all midshipmen. Open to the public are Memorial Hall, a midshipman-maintained memorial to graduates who have died during military operations, and the Rotunda, the ceremonial entrance to Bancroft Hall. The Commander-in-Chief's Trophy resides in the Rotunda while Navy is in possession of it. [66][67] It was named for the Academy's founder, Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft, and designed by Ernest Flagg.
  • The Naval Academy Chapel, at the center of the campus, across from Herndon Monument, has a high dome that is visible throughout Annapolis. [68] Designed by Ernest Flagg. The chapel was featured on the U.S. Postal Service postage stamp honoring the Academy's 150th anniversary in 1995. [69]John Paul Jones lies in the crypt beneath the chapel. Tradition states that if a plebe can place a midshipman cover (hat) on top of the chapel, plebe year will be over for all Fourth Class midshipmen. This tradition, however, is considered dangerous and is discouraged by the Academy. [70] , [71] primarily funded with private donations, was dedicated on 23 September 2005. The chapel was named for Commodore Uriah P. Levy and houses a Jewish chapel, the honor board, ethics, [clarification needed] character learning center, officer development spaces, a social director, and academic boards. Built featuring Jerusalem stone, the architecture of the exterior is consistent with nearby Bancroft Hall. is the primary assembly hall for the Brigade of Midshipmen and has two dining facilities. It hosts various sporting events (including the men's and women's intercollegiate basketball games) and is used by alumni for reunions. The Bob Hope Performing Arts Center is located there.
  • archives – see Nimitz Library (below)
  • Armel-Leftwich Visitor Center—inside Gate 1 and attached to the Halsey Field House—houses the USNA Guide Service, the USNA Gift Shop, a 12-minute film, and various exhibits, including the Graduates in Space exhibit, a sample midshipman's room, a model of the USS Maryland (BB-46), and an exhibit on the life and times of John Paul Jones, who is buried in the crypt beneath the Naval Academy Chapel. Walking tours include five types of adult tours and two types of student tours. [72]
  • Athletic Hall of Fame – see Lejeune Hall (below)
  • Chauvenet Hall, housing the departments of mathematics, physics, and oceanography, was named for William Chauvenet, an early professor at the US Naval Academy.
  • Dahlgren Hall contains a large multi-purpose room and a restaurant area. It was once used as an armory for the Academy, for drill purposes, and contained the Ordnance and Gunnery Department and classrooms. It was named for John A. Dahlgren.
  • The Dyer Tennis Clubhouse is used by the tennis team and contains locker rooms, offices, a racquet stringing room, a lounge, and a viewing deck overlooking the tennis courts. It was named for Vice Admiral George Dyer (Class of 1919). [73][74] contains an indoor track, squash and tennis courts, five basketball courts, a 65 tatamidojo for Aikido/Judo, a climbing wall, and assorted athletic and workout facilities and offices. [75] Before construction of Alumni Hall, it was used by Navy basketball teams and was the site of midshipman assemblies. It was named for William F. Halsey, Jr. – used by the crew team – is a three-story building on Dorsey Creek, 250 yards (230 m) from the Severn River. [73] Also known as the Boat House, it was renovated in 1993 and now includes the Fisher Rowing Center. It was named for Rear Admiral John Hubbard (Class of 1870). [73][76]
  • King Hall is the dining hall that seats the Brigade of Midshipmen together at one time. It was named for Ernest J. King. Daily fare ranges from eggs, to sandwiches, to prime rib and the annual crab feast.
  • Larson Hall- the administration building "Larson Hall" is named in honor of Adm. Charles R. Larson, Naval Academy Class of 1958, who died 26 July 2014. The building was built in 1907, renovated in 2014, and serves as the headquarters of the Naval Academy superintendent and immediate staff. , built in 1982, contains an Olympic-class swimming pool and diving tower, a mat room for wrestling and hand-to-hand martial arts, and the Athletic Hall of Fame. Named for John A. Lejeune, it is the first USNA building to be named for a Marine Corps officer. [77][78]
  • Library – see Nimitz Library (below)
  • Luce Hall, housing the departments of Professional Development and Leadership, Ethics, and Law, was named for Stephen Luce.
  • MacDonough Hall contains a full-scale gymnastics area, two boxing rings, and alternate swimming pools. It was named for Thomas MacDonough.
  • Mahan Hall contains a theater along with the old library in the Hart Room, which has now been converted into a lounge and meeting room. It was named for Alfred Thayer Mahan. Designed by Ernest Flagg.
  • Maury Hall contains the departments of Weapons and Systems Engineering plus Electrical Engineering. It was named for Matthew Fontaine Maury. Designed by Ernest Flagg.
  • Michelson Hall, housing the departments of Computer Science and Chemistry, was named for Albert A. Michelson, the first American to win the Nobel Prize in Physics.
  • museum – see Preble Hall (below)
  • The Nimitz Library contains the academy's library collection, the academy's archives (William W. Jeffries Memorial Archives), and the departments of Language Studies, Economics and Political Science. It was named for Chester W. Nimitz.
  • The Officers' and Faculty Club and officers quarters spread around the Yard.
  • Preble Hall houses the U.S. Naval Academy Museum. [79] It was named for Edward Preble. It maintains a collection of Naval Academy class rings from 1869 through to the present. Tradition dictates that the first deceased class member's ring is donated to the museum to represent that class in the official class ring display.
  • Ricketts Hall contains the basketball, football, and lacrosse offices, the locker room for the varsity football team, and one of the academy's three "strength and conditioning facilities," where Midshipman athletes train. [73] It was named for Claude V. Ricketts.
  • Rickover Hall houses the departments of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Aeronautical and Aerospace Engineering. It was named for Hyman G. Rickover.
  • The Robert Crown Sailing Center contains offices, team classrooms, locker rooms, and equipment repair and storage facilities. It also houses the ICSA College Sailing Hall of Fame. Also on display in the Hall are the Naval Academy's sailing trophies and awards. [80]
  • Sampson Hall, housing the departments of English and History, was named for William T. Sampson. Designed by Ernest Flagg.
  • visitor center – see Armel-Leftwich Visitor Center (above) houses physical education, varsity sports, intramural athletics, club sports, and personal-fitness programs and equipment. The cross country and track and field teams, the sprint football team, the women's lacrosse team, and sixteen club sports all use this building. It has a full-length, retractable football field. When the field is retracted, you can then use the 200-meter track (with hydraulically controlled banked curves) and three permanent basketball courts. It also has eight locker rooms and a medical facility. It was named for Wesley A. Brown, Class of 1949, who was the Academy's first African American graduate.

Monuments and memorials Edit

    . A copy of the original bell which was brought back to the United States in 1855 by Commodore Matthew Perry following his mission to Japan. The bell is placed in front of Bancroft Hall and rung in a semi-annual ceremony for each victory that Navy has registered over Army, to include one of the nation's oldest football rivalries, the Army–Navy Game. The current bell is an exact replica of the original, which the United States Navy returned to the people of Okinawa in 1987. [81] . This statue is a bronze replica of the figurehead of ship-of-the-line USS Delaware. It was presented to the Academy by the Class of 1891. This bust, one of the most famous relics on the campus, is commonly known as Tecumseh. However, when it adorned the American man-of-war, it commemorated not Tecumseh but Tamanend, the revered Delaware chief who welcomed William Penn to America. The original wooden figurehead is in the Naval Academy fieldhouse. In times past, the bronze replica was considered a good-luck "mascot" for the midshipmen, who threw pennies at it and offered left-handed salutes whenever they wanted a 'favor', such as a sports win over West Point, spiritual help for examinations. It is also referred to as the god of 2.0 because 2.0 is the minimum passing GPA at USNA, and the mids offer pennies to Tecumseh to help achieve this. Today it is used as a morale booster during football weeks and on special occasions when Tecumseh is painted in themes to include super heroes, action heroes, humorous figures, a leprechaun (before Saint Patrick's Day) and a naval officer (during Commissioning Week). . Famous flags of the U.S. Navy and captured flags from enemy ships are displayed throughout the academy. The most famous, perhaps, is the "Don't Give Up the Ship" flag flown by Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry at the Battle of Lake Erie on 10 September 1813 it bears the dying words of Captain James Lawrence, captain of the USS Chesapeake. It was displayed in Memorial Hall, which is in the portion of Bancroft Hall open to the general public until 2004. It underwent conservation and is now on display in the Museum in Preble Hall. The only British royal standard taken by capture [citation needed] was displayed in Mahan Hall. It was taken at Toronto (then York) in the War of 1812. . The Monument was commissioned by the Officers of the U.S. Navy as a tribute to Commander William Lewis Herndon (1813–1857) after his loss in the Pacific Mail Steamer Central America during a hurricane off the North Carolina coast on 12 September 1857. Herndon had followed a longtime custom of the sea [citation needed] that a ship's captain is the last person to depart his ship in peril. It was erected in its current location on 16 June 1860 and has never been moved, even though the Academy was completely rebuilt between 1899 and 1908.
  • Memorial Hall – in Bancroft Hall – is a midshipman-kept memorial to graduates who died during military operations. It includes an honor roll, scrolls, and plaques.
  • Pearl Harbor memorial. At Alumni Hall, a wall is reserved by the Pearl Harbor Survivors Association to commemorate those who were killed during the attack on Pearl Harbor. – the oldest military monument in the U.S., honors the US servicemen of the First Barbary War: Master Commandant Richard Somers, Lieutenant James Caldwell, James Decatur (brother of Stephen Decatur), John Dorsey, Joseph Israel, and Henry Wadsworth. Originally known as the Naval Monument, it was carved of Carrara marble in Italy in 1806 and brought to the U.S. as ballast on board the USS Constitution ("Old Ironsides"). From its original location in the Washington Navy Yard, it was moved to the west terrace of the national Capitol and finally, in 1860, to the Naval Academy. [82]
  • USS Samuel B. Roberts memorial. In Alumni Hall, a concourse is dedicated to Lieutenant Lloyd Garnett and his shipmates aboard USS Samuel B. Roberts, who earned their ship the reputation as the "destroyer escort that fought like a battleship" in the Battle of Leyte Gulf during World War II.
  • The Mexican War Midshipmen's Monument at the intersection of Stribling Walk (16,000 bricks) and Chapel Walk is in memory of one midshipman (Shubrick) who lost his life in the siege of Veracruz in 1847, and three midshipmen (Clemson, Hynson, Pillsbury) who lost their lives when the brigSomers sank in 1846. [83]
  • The Macedonian Monument, at the end of Stribling Walk opposite Mahan Hall, is the figurehead of HMS Macedonian. Macedonian was defeated in battle by the frigateUnited States 25 October 1812.

Brigade sports complex Edit

The complex includes McMullen Hockey Arena where the men's ice-hockey team is located rugby venues, an indoor hitting, chipping and putting facility for the golf team, and the Tose Family Tennis Center – including the Fluegel-Moore Tennis Stadium. [73]

Cemetery and columbarium Edit

Glenn Warner Soccer Facility Edit

Navy–Marine Corps Memorial Stadium Edit

Terwilliger Brothers Field Edit

In 1850, the academy was placed under the jurisdiction of the Navy's Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography but was transferred to the Bureau of Navigation when that organization was established in 1862. The academy was placed under the direct care of the Navy Department in 1867, but for many years the Bureau of Navigation provided administrative routine and financial management.

As of 2004, the Superintendent of the Naval Academy reports directly to the Chief of Naval Operations. The current Superintendent is Vice Admiral Sean S. Buck(USNA 1983).

The current Commandant of Midshipmen is Captain Thomas R. Buchanan, USN (USNA Class of 1992), a career submarine Officer and the Academy's 88th Commandant. [84]

The Board of Visitors annually audits the Academy. Its recommendations constitute a mandate to the administration. It is composed of officials appointed by Congress and the President. [85] 2020 recommendations include changing the historic names of buildings from people who deserted the Union for the Confederacy during the American Civil War. [86]

Roughly 500 faculty members are evenly divided between civilian professors and military instructors. The civilian professors nearly all have a PhD and can be awarded tenure, usually upon promotion from assistant professor to associate professor. Fewer of the military instructors have a PhD but nearly all have a master's degree. Most of them are assigned to the Academy for only two or three years. Additionally, there are adjunct professors, hired to fill temporary shortages in various disciplines. The Adjunct Professors are not eligible for tenure.

Permanent Military Professors (PMP)

A small number of officers at the Academy are designated as Permanent Military Professors (PMP), initially at the academic rank of Assistant Professor. All PMPs have PhDs, and remain at the Academy until statutory retirement. Most are commanders in the Navy a few are captains. Like civilian professors, they seek academic promotion to the rank of Associate Professor and Professor. However, they are not eligible for tenure.

Distinguished Visiting Professorships

The Class of 1957 Distinguished Chair of Naval Heritage is an academic professorial chair in the History Department. [87] In order to preserve and promote a better understanding of professional naval heritage in midshipmen at the U.S. Naval Academy, the Academy's Class of 1957 donated the funds to permanently endow this position. It is designed to be a visiting position for a distinguished senior academic historian, who is to hold the post for one or two years. The position was first occupied in 2006 and, in addition to teaching requirements, the occupant is expected to give the McMullen Seapower Lecture at the Academy's biennial McMullen Naval History Symposium.

    , January 2006 – June 2007 , August 2007 – June 2009 , August 2009 – June 2010 , August 2010 – June 2011 , August 2011 – June 2012 . August 2012 – June 2013
  • Gene Allen Smith, August 2013 – June 2014
  • William F. Trimble, August 2014 – June 2015 , August 2015 – June 2016
  • Nicholas A. Lambert, August 2016 – June 2018
  • Kathleen Broome Williams, August 2018 –

By an Act of Congress passed in 1903, two midshipman appointments were allowed for each senator, representative, and delegate in Congress, two for the District of Columbia, and five each year at large. Currently each member of Congress and the Vice President can have five appointees attending the Naval Academy at any time. When any appointee graduates or otherwise leaves the academy, a vacancy is created. Candidates are nominated by their senator, representative, or delegate in Congress, and those appointed at large are nominated by the Vice President. The applicants do not have to know their Congressman to be nominated. Congressmen generally nominate ten people per vacancy. They can nominate people in a competitive manner, or they can have a principal nomination. In a competitive nomination, all ten applicants are reviewed by the academy, to see who is the most qualified. If the congressman appoints a principal nominee, then as long as that candidate is physically, medically, and academically found qualified by the academy, he or she will be admitted, even if there are more qualified applicants. The degree of difficulty in obtaining a nomination varies greatly according to the number of applicants in a particular state. The process of obtaining a nomination typically consists of completing an application, completing one or more essays, and obtaining one or more letters of recommendation and often requires an interview either in person or over the phone. These requirements are set by the respective senator or representative and are in addition to the USNA application. [88]

The Secretary of the Navy may appoint 170 enlisted members of the Regular and Reserve Navy and Marine Corps to the Naval Academy each year. Additional sources of appointment are open to children of career military personnel (100 per year) and 65 appointments are available to children of military members who were killed in action, or were rendered 100% disabled due to injuries received in action, or are currently prisoners of war or missing in action. Typically five to ten candidates are nominated for each appointment, which are normally awarded competitively candidates who do not receive the appointment they are competing for may still be admitted to the Academy as a qualified alternate. If a candidate is considered qualified but not picked up, they may receive an indirect admission to either a Naval Academy Foundation prep school or the Naval Academy Preparatory School in Newport the following year, these candidates enlist in the Navy Reserve (or, in the case of prior enlisted members, remain in the Navy) and are eligible for Secretary of the Navy nominations, which are granted as a matter of course. To receive an appointment to the Naval Academy, students at the Naval Academy Preparatory School must first pass with a 2.2 QPA (a combination of GPA and Fitness Assessments), although this is waiverable. A candidate must also receive a recommendation for appointment from the Commanding Officer. The appointment process has been criticized as giving preferential treatment towards athletes. [89]

Children of Medal of Honor recipients are automatically appointed to the Naval Academy they only need to meet admission requirements. [90]

Admissions requirements Edit

To be admitted, candidates must be between seventeen and twenty-three years of age upon entrance, unmarried with no children, and of good moral character. The current process includes a college application, personality testing, standardized testing, and personal references. Candidates for admission must also undergo a physical aptitude test (the CFA or Candidate Fitness Assessment [formerly the Physical Readiness Examination]) as well as a complete physical exam including a separate visual acuity test to be eligible for appointment. A medical waiver will automatically be sought on behalf of candidates with less than 20/20 vision, as well as a range of other injuries or illnesses. The physical aptitude test is most often administered by a high school physical education teacher or sports team coach. [90]

A small number of international students, usually from smaller allied or friendly countries, are admitted into each class. (International students from larger allies, such as France and the United Kingdom, typically come as shorter-term exchange students from their national naval colleges or academies.) The Class of 2018 includes 13 international students from: Cambodia (1), Cameroon (2), Federated States of Micronesia (1), Georgia (1), Kazakhstan (1), Korea (1), Mexico (1), Montenegro (1), Nigeria (1), Senegal (1), Taiwan (1), and United Arab Emirates (1). [91]

Seven second class cadets each from West Point, the Air Force Academy, and the Coast Guard Academy, spend a fall semester at Annapolis. The same applies for midshipmen exchanged out to those academies at the same time. The exchange process is competitive. [92]

The Naval Academy received accreditation as an approved "technological institution" in 1930. In 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt signed into law an act of Congress providing for the Bachelor of Science Degree for the Naval, Military, and Coast Guard Academies. The Class of 1933 was the first to receive this degree and have it written in the diploma. In 1937, an act of Congress extended to the Superintendent of the Naval Academy the authority to award the Bachelor of Science degree to all living graduates. The Academy later replaced a fixed curriculum taken by all midshipmen with the present core curriculum plus 22 major fields of study. [93]

Academic departments at the Naval Academy are organized into three divisions: Engineering and Weapons, known as Division I, Mathematics and Science, known as Division II, and Humanities and Social Sciences, known as Division III.

In its 2021 edition, U.S. News & World Report ranked the U.S. Naval Academy as the No. 1 top public school, No. 6 in national liberal arts colleges in the U.S., and No. 5 for Best Undergraduate Engineering program at schools where doctorates not offered. [94] In 2016, Forbes ranked the U.S. Naval Academy as No. 24 overall in its report "America's Top Colleges". [95]

Moral education Edit

Moral and ethical development is fundamental to all aspects of the Naval Academy. From Plebe Summer through graduation, the Officer Development Program, a four-year integrated program, focuses on integrity, honor, and mutual respect based on the moral values of respect for human dignity, respect for honesty and respect for the property of others. [96]

One of the goals of the program is to develop midshipmen to possess a sense of their own moral beliefs and the ability to express them. Honor is emphasized through the Honor Concept of the Brigade of Midshipmen, which states:

Midshipmen are persons of integrity: They stand for that which is right.

They tell the truth and ensure that the full truth is known. They do not lie.

They embrace fairness in all actions. They ensure that work submitted as their own is their own, and that assistance received from any source is authorized and properly documented. They do not cheat.

They respect the property of others and ensure that others are able to benefit from the use of their own property. They do not steal. [97]

Similar ideals are expressed in the honor codes of the other service academies. However, midshipmen are allowed to confront someone they see violating the code without formally reporting it. It is believed that this method is a better way of developing the honor of midshipmen as opposed to the non-toleration clauses of the other service academies and is a better way of building honor and trust.

Brigade Honor Committees composed of upper-class midshipmen are responsible for the education and training of the Honor Concept. Depending on the severity of the offense, midshipmen found in violation of the Honor Concept by their peers can be separated from the Naval Academy. [96]

Naval Academy Foreign Affairs Conference (NAFAC) Edit

Since 1961, the Academy has hosted the annual Naval Academy Foreign Affairs Conference (NAFAC), the country's largest undergraduate, foreign-affairs conference. NAFAC provides a forum for addressing pressing international concerns and seeks to explore current issues from both a civilian and military perspective.

Each year a unique theme is chosen for NAFAC. Noteworthy individuals with expertise in relevant fields are then invited to address the conference delegates, who represent civilian and military colleges from across the United States and around the globe.

The entire conference is organized and run by midshipmen, who also serve as moderators, presenters, and delegates. The midshipman director is responsible for every aspect of the conference, including the conference theme, and is generally charged with leading a staff of over 250 midshipmen. [98]

Naval Academy Science and Engineering Conference (NASEC) Edit

The Naval Academy Science and Engineering Conference (NASEC), hosted annually since 2000, is an undergraduate STEM conference. Held in November each year, approximately 45 midshipmen join 150 attendees from other colleges and universities across the country meet and discuss significant science and engineering challenges. The delegates hear from leaders in scientific research and policy from academia, industry, and government, and participate in group discussions on the conference themes. [99]

The conference serves as both a leadership opportunity for the midshipmen staff who organize and run the event, and as a venue to expose midshipmen to cutting-edge science and engineering challenges.

McMullen Naval History Symposium Edit

Since 1973, the Naval Academy has hosted a major international conference for naval historians. In 2006 it was named after John J. McMullen, USNA Class of 1940.

Small Satellite Program Edit

The United States Naval Academy (USNA) Small Satellite Program (SSP) [100] was founded in 1999 to actively pursue flight opportunities for miniature satellites designed, constructed, tested, and commanded or controlled by midshipmen.

The USNA MidSTAR Program's first satellite, MidSTAR I was launched 8 March 2007. [101] The planned MidSTAR II was canceled.

Postgraduate studies Edit

Because the majority of graduates commence directly into their military commissions, the Naval Academy offers no graduate degree programs. However, a number of programs allow midshipmen to obtain graduate degrees before fulfilling their service obligation. The Immediate Graduate Education Program (IGEP) allows newly commissioned Ensigns or Second Lieutenants to proceed directly to graduate school and complete a master's degree. The Voluntary Graduate Education Program (VGEP) allows the midshipman to begin their studies the second semester of their senior year at a local university, usually University of Maryland, Johns Hopkins University, Georgetown University, or George Washington University, and complete the degree by the following semester. Midshipmen accepted into prestigious scholarships, such as the Rhodes Scholarship are permitted to complete their studies before fulfilling their service obligation. Finally, the Bowman Scholarship allows Navy Nuclear Power candidates to complete their master's degrees at the Naval Postgraduate School before continuing into the Navy.


United States Naval History

Few navies have been immune from mutiny in the twentieth century, but the question of how and why naval discipline sometimes breaks down has received little scholarly attention. This book brings together a set of readable and up-to-date essays examining mutinies in the navies of Russia (the Potemkin mutiny, 1905), Brazil (1910), Austria-Hungary (1918), Germany (1918), France (1919), Australia (1919), Chile (1931), Great Britain (the Invergordon mutiny, 1931), the United States (the Port Chicago mutiny, 1944), India (1946), China (1949), and Canada (1949).

The nature of these incidents varied widely, but all represented a deliberate assault on naval or political authority. The objectives of the mutineers ranged from limited reforms of a purely naval nature to overtly political goals and, in rare cases, to outright revolution. The first twelve chapters in this book address the causes of a particular mutiny, its long-and short-term repercussions, and the course of the mutiny itself. Taking advantage of new research and new methodologies, the contributors provide something of value to both the specialist and non-specialist reader.

The volume concludes with an essay by the editors shedding important new light on the dynamics at work in the outbreak, development, and resolution of modern naval mutinies. It shows that mutinies in democratic, western states usually differed fundamentally from those in authoritarian regimes or less-developed societies. In the former, incidents were usually short-lived and non-violent. They tended to spread easily from ship to ship, but the mutineers' demands remained moderate and limited. In the latter, mutinies were less frequent, but were more often characterized by violence, escalating demands, and revolutionary intent.

Looking forward, the authors' conclude that the days when sailors might rebel against their immediate superiors to seize control of a warship are probably long gone. But as long as western states rely on broad and imprecise definitions, incidents will continue to occur that meet all of the legal criteria for mutiny, even if there is a reluctance to use the term. The potential for major naval mutinies probably remains, however, in non-democratic states like China and throughout the underdeveloped world.


A Rich history worth remembering

The years following the Civil War marked a renaissance for the United States Navy. Secretary of the Navy William C. Whitney reorganized the bureaus, rid the fleet of antiquated vessels and began rapid construction of modern steel ships. This revitalization included the expansion and enhancement of the Naval Academy in Annapolis.

While one of the Chapel’s signature trademarks is its copper clad dome, the original dome was once covered with elaborate terra cotta decorations, giving it the appearance of a frosted wedding cake

As the 19th Century drew to a close, Colonel Robert Means Thompson of the Class of 1868 commissioned renowned architect Ernest Flagg to design a complete transformation of the Academy. Flagg’s work and its monumental Beaux Arts style resulted in the 10 core buildings that still make up the heart of the Naval Academy Yard, including its iconic centerpiece, the Naval Academy Chapel. Built over 10 years at a cost of $10 million, the Chapel quickly became known as the “architectural crown” of Flagg’s design.

While one of the Chapel’s signature trademarks is its copper clad dome, the original dome was once covered with elaborate terra cotta decorations, giving it the appearance of a frosted wedding cake. After a 15-pound chunk fell off in 1928, the terra cotta was removed and the dome covered in copper.

Nearly 90 years later, the copper remains, but time has taken its toll. Preliminary repairs in 2018 revealed much greater deterioration than anticipated, requiring full replacement of the entire copper covering. But plans are in place to allow the historic copper to live on in heirlooms made available through the U.S. Naval Academy Alumni Association.

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The Navy in the Revolutionary era

The earliest sea battles of the American Revolution took place after the Battle of Lexington, when 9 of the 13 colonies armed small vessels for the protection of local waterborne commerce. When George Washington took command of the Continental Army in July 1775, he found his troops without ammunition and arranged for a ship of the Rhode Island navy to sail to Bermuda for powder. Soon afterward Washington fitted out seven small vessels and manned them with seagoing troops in order to interfere with British supply ships. Commodore John Manly directed this force and commanded the most successful of the vessels, capturing in one British ship a quantity of munitions equivalent to the manufacturing capacity of the colonies for about 18 months. On October 13, 1775, the Continental Congress voted to fit out ships, and the Marine Committee, later appointed, sent the first Continental squadron to sea, under the command of Esek Hopkins, for the purpose of capturing munitions.

Congress declared all British vessels subject to capture and authorized privateering. In the aggregate, the Continental Navy comprised about 60 ships and made an impressive showing. John Paul Jones had spectacular successes in British home waters. In addition to cruising against enemy merchantmen and British blockaders, the Continental vessels were required to make many voyages carrying diplomatic representatives and essential cargo. Arrangements for the administration of the Continental vessels were not efficient, and the shortage of money imposed severe handicaps. Privateering offered much better financial inducements and made recruiting for naval vessels difficult. Together, the Continental Navy and the privateers touched the pocketbook nerve of British merchants, and each one of the many petitions to the king importuning for an end to the war stressed the severe losses which the English mercantile community was suffering.

The Royal Navy enabled the British army to force the surrender of Savannah, Georgia Charleston, South Carolina and Wilmington, North Carolina. It ravaged the coast of Connecticut and burned Norfolk, Virginia, and Falmouth, Maine, and other coastal towns while enabling the British army to strike at will along the seaboard. By 1778 Washington realized that he needed the help of a superior French fleet to enable him to inflict a truly decisive defeat on the British. Thereafter he constantly urged Benjamin Franklin—who was in Paris representing American government—on the need for French ships rather than French troops. In the Battle of the Chesapeake (Battle of Virginia Capes), on September 5, 1781, a powerful British fleet was defeated by the French armada commanded by François-Joseph-Paul, comte de Grasse. The presence of the French fleet prevented the Royal Navy from rescuing the British from the Yorktown Peninsula, and Washington forced the surrender of the British army under Lord Cornwallis on October 19, 1781.


United States Naval Academy — Medieval/Early Modern European History

The History Department at the United States Naval Academy is seeking applicants to fill tenure-track positions at the Assistant Professor level in Medieval and Early Modern European History beginning August 2017. USNA is a service academy and top-tier liberal arts college with a demonstrated commitment to excellence in faculty teaching and research.

Successful candidates will be expected to teach the first half of the Naval Academy’s core comparative civilization sequences, as well as upper-level courses in their areas of specialty. The teaching load is 3-3 with small section sizes and two to three preps a year.

  • Application review will begin on 13 October 2016 but the positions will remain open until filled. Interested candidates should send a cover letter describing their qualifications and research interests, curriculum vitae, and letters of recommendation to Professor Rick Ruth, Chair of the History Department [email protected]
  • Submit a Demographic Information on Applicants Form to [email protected] Your responses will not be shared with the panel rating the applications or to the official making the selection for this position.
  • A Ph.D. in History or closely related field. If currently pursuing degree, then candidates should anticipate completion of degree no later than July 1, 2017.
  • While areas of specialization are open, the department is particularly interested in candidates who are prepared to teach the history of women, gender, or race and ethnicity.
  • The department is seeking teacher-scholar-mentors committed to inclusive pedagogy, with the experience and expertise to work effectively with a diverse student body and faculty, and who have the potential to produce significant peer-reviewed scholarly publications.

All Civilian Faculty Positions at USNA are subject to a background investigation. These investigations are conducted to ensure that individuals hired are trustworthy, of good conduct, and reliable. More information about the background investigation process can be found at the Academic Dean and Provost’s website here http://www.usna.edu/Academics/Faculty-Information/Background-Investigation-Info.php.

The United States Naval Academy is a unique institution of higher learning located in desirable Annapolis, Maryland. As an historic officer accession program and premier undergraduate college, the United States Naval Academy has its own distinctive niche amongst American educational institutions. Our talented faculty and staff are united by one common purpose–to develop the next generation of leaders for naval service. In order to deliver on this promise to our nation, we recruit from all segments of society to find faculty, instructors, and support staff who model the highest professional standards.

Every year more than one million people tour “the Yard” to experience what our employees already know — the United States Naval Academy is a special place, with a special purpose. Those selected for employment will find challenging and rewarding work state-of-the-art facilities which inspire academic and athletic excellence the benefits of Federal employment and exceptional quality-of-life.


We understand the various phases and levels of being “out” .. first to yourself, then perhaps close friends, peers, parents, your professors and coach, your wardroom, to your division or squad, your office or to the world. Despite “Out” in our name, you don’t need to be out to join us. What matters is that you are you. Some of our members are still questioning, and many members are allies. Some registered members have opted to remain hidden from other members on our roster, but still have full access to our site and communications. USNA Out welcomes all USNA Alumni and other eligible individuals to join us. If you are not yet ready to join as a member, you can still take comfort in knowing that there are many other alumni & midshipmen just like you.

If you are one of us, you can JOIN THE NETWORK OF OVER 400 LGBT ALUMNI AND ALLIES. Membership is open to all alumni of USNA. Associate Membership is available to USNA Out member spouses, USNA Faculty and Staff, Midshipmen and Parents of current and former midshipmen.


Watch the video: Ναυτική Ακαδημία της Βάρνας:Υψηλού επιπέδου εκπαίδευση και επαγγελματική αποκατάσταση (January 2022).