Mali Empire

Mali Empire

The Mali Empire (1240-1645) of West Africa was founded by Sundiata Keita (r. Sundiata's centralised government, diplomacy and well-trained army permitted a massive military expansion which would pave the way for a flourishing of the Mali Empire, making it the largest yet seen in Africa.

The reign of Mansa Musa I (1312-1337) saw the empire reach new heights in terms of territory controlled, cultural florescence, and the staggering wealth brought through Mali's control of regional trade routes. Acting as a middle-trader between North Africa via the Sahara desert and the Niger River to the south, Mali exploited the traffic in gold, salt, copper, ivory, and slaves that crisscrossed West Africa. Muslim merchants were attracted to all this commercial activity, and they converted Mali rulers who in turn spread Islam via such noted centres of learning as Timbuktu. In contrast to cities like Niani (the capital), Djenne, and Gao, most of the rural Mali population remained farmers who clung to their traditional animist beliefs. The Mali Empire collapsed in the 1460s following civil wars, the opening up of trade routes elsewhere, and the rise of the neighbouring Songhai Empire, but it did continue to control a small part of the western empire into the 17th century.

West Africa & the Sudan Region

The Sudan region of West Africa where the Mali Empire would develop had been inhabited since the Neolithic period as evidenced by Iron Age tumuli, megaliths, and remains of abandoned villages. The Niger River regularly flooded parts of this dry grassland and savannah, which provided fertile land for agriculture beginning at least 3,500 years ago, an endeavour greatly helped by the region's adequate annual rainfall. Cereals such as red-skinned African rice and millet were grown with success, as were pulses, tuber and root crops, oil and fibre plants, and fruits. Fishing and cattle herding were other important sources of food, while local deposits of copper were exploited and used for trade. Similarly, gold was probably locally mined or panned and then traded, but concrete evidence from this period is lacking.

When the Sosso king Sumanguru imposed trade restrictions on the Mali region, the native Malinke tribe rose in rebellion.

The Ghana Empire (6th to 13th century) was the first major political power in West Africa to create an empire based on military might and the wealth gained from regional trade. Not geographically connected to modern-day Ghana but located to the northwest, the empire was in serious decline by the end of the 12th century. Beset by civil wars, rebellions of subjugated chiefdoms, and poor harvests, the empire began to disintegrate with a large part of its territory taken over by the kingdom of Sosso (aka Susu). When the Sosso king Sumanguru (aka Sumaoro Kante, r. from c. 1200), imposed trade restrictions on the Mali region, the native Malinke (Mandingo) tribe rose in rebellion.

Sundiata Keita & Government

Sundiata Keita (aka Sunjaata or Sundjata, r. 1230-1255) was a Malinke prince, whose name means 'lion prince', and he waged war against the kingdom of Sosso from the 1230s. Sundiata formed a powerful alliance of other disgruntled chiefs tired of Sumanguru's harsh rule and defeated the Sosso in a decisive battle at Krina (aka Kirina) in 1235. In 1240 Sundiata captured the old Ghana capital. Forming a centralised government of tribal leaders and a number of influential Arab merchants, this assembly (gbara) declared Sundiata the supreme monarch and gave him such honorary titles as Mari Diata (Lord Lion). The name Sundiata gave to his empire, Africa's largest up to that point, was Mali, meaning 'the place where the king lives'. It was also decreed that all future kings would be selected from the Keita clan, although the title was not necessarily given to the eldest son of a ruler, which sometimes led to fierce disputes among candidates.

The Mansa, or king, would be assisted by an assembly of elders and local chiefs throughout the Mali Empire's history, with audiences held in the royal palace or under a large tree. The king was also the supreme source of justice, but he did make use of legal advisors. In addition, the king was helped by a number of key ministers such as the chief of the army and master of the granaries (later treasury), as well as other officials like the master of ceremonies and leader of the royal orchestra. Nevertheless, the Mansa acted as a supreme monarch and monopolised key trade goods, for example, only he was permitted to possess gold nuggets, traders had to make do with gold dust. The king had certain mystical qualities attributed to him, and all slaves were exclusively loyal to him. No person had the right to be in the king's presence when he ate, for example, and all visitors before him had to be barefoot and bow down and pour dust over their heads. Such was this cult of leadership and the extreme centralisation of government in a single figure that the fortunes of the empire rose and fell depending on the talents or lack of them possessed by a particular king.

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Mali had a triple income: taxes on trade, goods were bought & sold on at much higher prices, & it had its own natural resources.

These problems of governance were yet to come, though, and Sundiata would continue to expand his territory to include the old kingdoms of Ghana, Walata, Tadmekka, and Songhai. Niani, now no longer in existence but probably located on a plain near the all-year-round navigable Sankarani River, was selected as the empire's capital. It was protected by mountains and was close to the two key sources of trade goods: forests and waterways.

Tribute was acquired from conquered chiefdoms, although many local chiefs were permitted to continue to rule their own people but with a Mali-appointed governor to assist them, often backed by a garrison. Additional guarantees of loyalty included taking royal hostages and keeping them at the capital. This federation prospered, developing over the next century into one of Africa's richest ever empires whose wealth would astound both Europe and Arabia. Further, and perhaps more important for the ordinary people of Mali, foreign visitors noted the high degree of justice they saw, the safety with which one could travel from place to place, and the abundance of food in all villages.

Trade & Timbuktu

Like its political predecessors, the Mali Empire prospered thanks to trade and its prime location, situated between the rain forests of southern West Africa and the powerful Muslim caliphates of North Africa. The Niger River provided ready access to Africa's interior and Atlantic coast, while the Berber-controlled camel caravans that crossed the Sahara desert ensured valuable commodities came from the north. The Mali rulers had a triple income: they taxed the passage of trade goods, bought goods and sold them on at much higher prices, and had access to their own valuable natural resources. Significantly, the Mali Empire controlled the rich gold-bearing regions of Galam, Bambuk, and Bure. One of the main trade exchanges was gold dust for salt from the Sahara. Gold was in particular demand from European powers like Castille in Spain and Venice and Genoa in Italy, where coinage was now being minted in the precious metal.

Timbuktu, founded c. 1100 by the nomadic Tuaregs, was a semi-independent trade port which had the double advantage of being on the Niger River bend and the starting point for the trans-Saharan caravans. The city would be monopolised and then taken over by the Mali kings who made it into one of the most important and most cosmopolitan trade centres in Africa. Through Timbuktu there passed such lucrative goods as ivory, textiles, horses (important for military use), glassware, weapons, sugar, kola nuts (a mild stimulant), cereals (e.g. sorghum and millet), spices, stone beads, craft products, and slaves. Goods were bartered for or paid using an agreed upon commodity such as copper or gold ingots, set quantities of salt or ivory, or even cowry shells (which came from Persia).

Mansa Musa I

After a string of seemingly lacklustre rulers, the Mali Empire enjoyed its second golden era during the reign of Mansa Musa I in the first half of the 13th century. With an army numbering around 100,000 men, including an armoured cavalry corps of 10,000 horses, and with the talented general Saran Mandian, Mansa Musa was able to maintain and extend Mali's empire, doubling its territory. He controlled lands up to the Gambia and lower Senegal in the west; in the north, tribes were subdued along the whole length of the Western Sahara border region; in the east, control spread up to Gao on the Niger River and, to the south, the Bure region and the forests of what became known as the Gold Coast came under Mali oversight. The Mali Empire thus came to include many different religious, ethnic, and linguistic groups.

To govern these diverse peoples, Mansa Musa divided his empire into provinces with each one ruled by a governor (farba) appointed personally by him and responsible for local taxes, justice, and settling tribal disputes. The administration was further improved with greater records kept and sent to the centralised government offices at Niani. With more tribute from more conquered chiefs, more trade routes under Mali control, and even more natural resources to exploit, Mansa Musa and the Mali elite became immensely rich. When the Mali king visited Cairo in 1324, he spent or simply gave away so much gold that the price of bullion crashed by 20%. Such riches set off a never-ending round of rumours that Mali was a kingdom paved with gold. In Spain c. 1375, a mapmaker was inspired to create Europe's first detailed map of West Africa, part of the Catalan Atlas. The map has Mansa Musa wearing an impressive gold crown and triumphantly brandishing a huge lump of gold in his hand. European explorers would spend the next five centuries trying to locate the source of this gold and the fabled trading city of Timbuktu.

Spread of Islam

Islam spread through parts of West Africa via the Arab merchants who traded there. Noted Muslim travellers and chroniclers like Ibn Battuta (1304 - c. 1369) and Ibn Khaldin (1332-1406) recorded that even Mali's first ruler Sundiata converted to Islam. However, the Malinke oral tradition, which was kept up over the generations by specialised bards (griots), presents a different story. Although recognising Islam was present in Mali long before Sundiata's reign, the oral tradition maintains that the first ruler of the Mali Empire did not reject the indigenous animist religion. We do know that Sundiata's son, Mansa Uli (aka Mansa Wali or Yerelenku), went on a pilgrimage to Mecca in the 1260s or 1270s, and this would be a continuing trend amongst many of Mali's rulers.

Islam in West Africa really took off, though, from the reign of Mansa Musa I. He famously went to Mecca and, impressed with what he saw on his travels, Mansa Musa brought back home Muslim architects, scholars, and books. Mosques were built such as Timbuktu's 'Great mosque' (aka Djinguereber or Jingereber), and Koranic schools and universities were established which quickly gained an international reputation. Studies were actually much wider than religion and included history, geography, astronomy, and medicine. Great libraries were built up with tens of thousands of books and manuscripts, many of which survive today.

As more people were converted, so more Muslim clerics were attracted from abroad and the religion was spread further across West Africa. Many native converts studied in such places as Fez, Morocco, and became great scholars, missionaries, and even saints, and so Islam came to be seen no longer as a foreign religion but a black African one. Despite the spread of Islam, it is also true that ancient indigenous animist beliefs continued to be practised, especially in rural communities, as noted by travellers like Ibn Battuta who visited Mali c. 1352. In addition, Islamic studies were conducted in Arabic not native languages, and this further impeded its popularity outside the educated clerical class of towns and cities. Even the Islam that did take hold in Mali was a particular variation of that practised in the Arab world, perhaps because Mali rulers could not afford to completely dismiss the indigenous religious practices and beliefs that the majority of their people clung on to.

Mali Architecture

The buildings of the Mali Empire, some of which like the Sankore mosque in Timbuktu still stand, are one of the most recognisable features of the region and have become international symbols of Africa's rich pre-colonial history. Mali architects had a distinct disadvantage because of the rarity of stone in the region, and for this reason, buildings were typically constructed using beaten earth (banco) reinforced with wood which often sticks out in beams from the exterior surfaces. Despite the limited materials, the mosques, in particular, are still imposing multi-storied structures with towers, huge wooden doors, and tiered minarets. Other large buildings included warehouses (fondacs) which were used to store goods before they were transported elsewhere and which had up to 40 apartments for merchants to live in. Other examples of the Mali baked-mud buildings which impress today, although many are early 20th-century reconstructions, include the huge mosques at Mopti and Djenne.

On a smaller scale, excavations at Niani have revealed the remains of houses and their stone foundations, confirming later sources that the richer members of society built stone houses. Arab chroniclers describe another type of domestic building, which was constructed using beaten earth bricks and with ceilings made of wooden beams and reeds, the whole formed into a conical roof. Flooring was made using earth mixed with sand.

Mali Art & Culture

We have already noted that the Malinke had a rich tradition of recounting legends and community histories orally by specialised story-tellers know as griots. These stories, passed down from generation to generation (and continuing today), were often accompanied by music. During the Mali Empire, there were even songs reserved for certain people who alone had the right to have them sung in their honour, this was especially so for renowned warriors and hunters. Music was also an important part of religious festivals when masked dancers performed.

Pottery and sculpture were produced, as they had been at noted centres like Djenne since the 9th century. Sculptures are generally up to 50 cm tall and made of solid pottery but sometimes with a reinforcing iron rod interior. Wood and brass were other popular materials for sculpture and, to a lesser degree, stone. Decoration is typically incised, painted, or achieved by adding three-dimensional pieces. Subjects include human figures, especially bearded warriors riding a horse but also many kneeling or crouching figures with upturned faces. Figures are often realistic portrayals of ordinary people, sometimes showing symptoms of tropical diseases. Although it is rare for artworks of this period to come with a certain provenance obtained from professionally excavated sites, the sculptures are so numerous that it seems likely many were used as everyday decorative objects as well as for ritual or burial purposes.


The Mali Empire was in decline by the 15th century. The ill-defined rules for royal succession often led to civil wars as brothers and uncles fought each other for the throne. Then, as trade routes opened up elsewhere, several rival kingdoms developed to the west, notably the Songhai. European ships, especially those belonging to the Portuguese, were now regularly sailing down the west coast of Africa and so the Saharan caravans faced stiff competition as the most efficient means to transport goods from West Africa to the Mediterranean. There were attacks on Mali by the Tuareg in 1433 and by the Mossi people, who at that time controlled the lands south of the Niger River. Around 1468, King Sunni Ali of the Songhai Empire (r. 1464-1492) conquered the rump of the Mali Empire which was now reduced to controlling a small western pocket of its once great territory. What remained of the Mali Empire would be absorbed into the Moroccan Empire in the mid-17th century.

Military History of The Mali Empire

The military history of the Mali Empire is that of the armed forces of the Mali Empire, which dominated Western Africa from the mid 13th to the late 15th century. The military culture of the empire’s driving force, the Mandinka people, influenced many later states in West Africa including break-away powers such as the Songhay and Jolof empires. Institutions from the Mali Empire also survived in the 19th century army of Samory Ture who saw himself as the heir to Old Mali’s legacy.

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Pre-Imperial Mali

Modern oral traditions recorded that the Mandinka kingdoms of Mali or Manden had already existed several centuries before unification by Sundiata, a Malian mansa also known as Mari Djata I, as a small state just to the south of the Soninké empire of Wagadou (the Ghana Empire). This area was composed of mountains, savanna, and forest providing ideal protection and resources for the population of hunters. Those not living in the mountains formed small city-states such as Toron, Ka-Ba, and Niani.

In approximately 1140, the Sosso kingdom of Kaniaga, a former vassal of Wagadou, began conquering the lands of its old masters. By 1180, it had even subjugated Wagadou, forcing the Soninké to pay tribute. In 1203, the Sosso king Soumaoro of the Kanté clan came to power and reportedly terrorized much of Manden, stealing women and goods from both Dodougou and Kri.

After many years in exile, first at the court of Wagadou and then at Mema, Sundiata, a prince who eventually became founder of the Mali Empire, was sought out by a Niani delegation and begged to combat the Sosso and free the kingdoms of Manden. Returning with the combined armies of Mema, Wagadou, and all the rebellious Mandinka city-states, Maghan Sundiata, or Sumanguru, led a revolt against the Kaniaga Kingdom around 1234. The combined forces of northern and southern Manden defeated the Sosso army at the Battle of Kirina (then known as Krina) in approximately 1235. This victory resulted in the fall of the Kaniaga kingdom and the rise of the Mali Empire. After the victory, King Soumaoro disappeared and the Mandinka stormed the last of the Sosso cities. Maghan Sundiata was declared “faama of faamas” and received the title “mansa,” which translates roughly to emperor. At the age of eighteen, he gained authority over all the twelve kingdoms in an alliance known as the Manden Kurufaba. He was crowned under the throne name Sunidata Keita, becoming the first Mandinka emperor. And so the name Keita became a clan/family and began its reign.

Drainage and soils

With the exception of some intermittent streams in the northeast, Mali’s drainage system consists entirely of the Sénégal and Niger rivers and their tributaries. The Sénégal system flows in a northwesterly direction across western Mali for about 420 miles (670 km) on its course to the Atlantic Ocean. One of its main headstreams, the Bakoye River, rises in the Fouta Djallon, while another, the Bafing River, rises farther to the east they join at Bafoulabé to form the Sénégal. The river continues flowing northwest and then west around the Mandingue Plateau, broken along the way by falls at Gouina and Félou, before exiting Mali.

The Niger River flows through Mali for slightly more than 1,000 miles (1,600 km), about two-fifths of the river’s total length. It rises in the Fouta Djallon and is of significant size by the time it enters the country near Kangaba. It flows to the northeast across the Mandingue Plateau, its course interrupted by falls and a dam at Sotuba. Reaching Koulikoro, it spreads out in a wide valley and flows majestically to its confluence with the Bani River at Mopti. The Niger then forms an interior delta, because the land is flat and the river’s gradient almost nonexistent. The river breaks down into a network of branches and lakes as it continues northward and, at Kabara, eastward. At Bourem the Niger makes a great turn to the southeast, known as the Niger Bend, and flows past Gao and Ansongo to the Niger border at Labbezanga.

The flow of the Niger varies seasonally. High waters occur on the upper Niger from July to October, at the delta from September to November, and at the bend from December to January. Periodic floods and the rich alluvial soils in the central delta make the Niger valley an important agricultural region.

The soils outside the Niger valley in Mali are poor. In the south, ferruginous (iron-bearing) soils are shallow and form a hard, red crust because of intense evaporation. The desert region is composed of sand, rock, and gravel.


Territory Edit

The Mali Empire reached its largest area under the Laye Keita mansas. Al-Umari, who wrote down a description of Mali based on information given to him by Abu Sa’id 'Otman ed Dukkali (who had lived 35 years in Niani), reported the realm as being square and an eight-month journey from its coast at Tura (at the mouth of the Senegal River) to Muli (also known as Tuhfat). Umari also describes the empire as being south of Marrakesh and almost entirely inhabited except for few places. Mali's domain also extended into the desert. He describes it as being north of Mali but under its domination implying some sort of vassalage for the Antasar, Yantar'ras, Medussa and Lemtuna Berber tribes. [15] The empire's total area included nearly all the land between the Sahara Desert and coastal forests. It spanned the modern-day countries of Senegal, southern Mauritania, Mali, northern Burkina Faso, western Niger, the Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, the Ivory Coast and northern Ghana. By 1350, the empire covered approximately 478,819 square miles (1,240,140 km 2 ). [16] The empire also reached its highest population during the Laye period ruling over 400 cities, [17] towns and villages of various religions and elasticities. During this period only the Mongol Empire was larger.

The dramatic increase in the empire's growth demanded a shift from the Manden Kurufaba's organisation of three states with twelve dependencies. This model was scrapped by the time of Mansa Musa's hajj to Egypt. According to al'Umari, who interviewed a Berber that had lived in the capital for 35 years, there were fourteen provinces (or, more accurately, tributary kingdoms). In al-'Umari's record, he only records the following thirteen provinces and five states. [18]

  • Gana (this refers to the remnants of the Ghana Empire)
  • Zagun or Zafun (this is another name for Diafunu) [19]
  • Tirakka or Turanka (Between Gana and Tadmekka) [18] (On 3rd cataract of the Senegal River, north of Jolof)
  • Sanagana (named for a tribe living in an area north of the Senegal river) or Bambughu (A territory in eastern Senegal and western Mali which was very rich in gold sources)
  • Zargatabana
  • Darmura or Babitra Darmura
  • Zaga (on the Niger, downriver of Kabora)
  • Kabora or Kabura (also on the Niger)
  • Baraquri or Baraghuri or Kawkaw (province inhabited by Gao Empire, which predated the Songhai) [20]
  • Mali or Manden (capital province for which the realm gets its name)

Capital debate Edit

The identity of the capital city of the Mali Empire is a matter of dispute among historians. Scholars have located the capital in Niani, or somewhere on the Niger, or proposed that it changed several times, that there was no true capital, or even that it lay as far afield as the upper Gambia river in modern-day Senegal. [21] Seemingly contradictory reports written by Arab visitors, a lack of definitive archaeological evidence, and the diversity of oral traditions all contribute to this uncertainty. [22] A particular challenge lies in interpreting early Arabic manuscripts, in which, without vowel markings and diacritics, foreign names can be read in numerous different ways (e.g. Biti, Buti, Yiti, Tati). [21] Ibn Battuta and Leo Africanus both call the capital "Mali." [23]

Early European writers such as Maurice Delafosse believed that Niani, a city on what is now the border between Guinea and Mali, was the capital for most of the empire's history, and this notion has taken hold in the popular imagination. [24] Djibril Tamsir Niane, a Guinean historian, has been a forceful advocate of this position in recent decades. The identification of Niani as imperial capital is rooted in an (possibly erroneous) interpretation of the Arab traveler al Umari's work, as well as some oral histories. Extensive archaeological digs have shown that the area was an important trade and manufacturing center in the 15th century, but no firm evidence of royal residence has come to light. [25] Niani's reputation as an imperial capital may derive from its importance in the late imperial period, when the Songhay Empire to the northeast pushed Mali back to the Manding heartland. Several 21st century historians have firmly rejected Niani as a capital candidate based on a lack of archaeological evidence of significant trade activity, clearly described by Arab visitors, particularly during the 14th century, Mali's golden age. [21] In fact, there is a conspicuous absence of archaeological samples of any kind from Niani dated to the late 13th through early 15th centuries, suggesting that Niani may have been uninhabited during the heyday of the Mali Empire. [21]

Various sources cite several other cities as capitals of the Mali Empire, some in competition with the Niani hypothesis and others addressing different time periods. A city called Dieriba or Dioliba is sometimes mentioned as the capital or main urban center of the province of Mande in the years before Sundiata, that was later abandoned. [26] [27]

Many oral histories point to a town called Dakajalan as the original home of the Keita clan and Sundiata's childhood home and base of operations during the war against the Soso. It may have been located close to modern Kangaba. Mande bards in the region speak of the Dakajalan site, containing Sundiata's grave, as sacrosanct. [28] Kangaba became the last refuge of the Keita royal family after the collapse of the Mali Empire, and so has for centuries been associated with Sundiata in the cultural imagination of Mande peoples. If Dakajalan was, in fact, situated near Kangaba, this may have also have contributed to their conflation, beginning with Delafosse's speculation that the latter may have begun as a suburb of the former. [29]

According to Jules Vidal and Levtzion, citing oral histories from Kangaba and Keyla, another onetime capital was Manikoro or Mali-Kura, founded after the destruction of Niani. [30]

Parallel to this debate, many scholars have argued that the Mali Empire may not have had a permanent "capital" in the sense that the word is used today, and historically was used in the Mediterranean world. Rather, authority would rest with the mansa and his court, wherever he went. Therefore, Arabic visitors may have assigned the "capital" label merely to whatever major city the mansa was based out of at the time of their visit. [31] It has been suggested that the name given in the Arabic sources for the capital of Mali is derived the Manding word "bambi", meaning "dais", and as such refers to the "seat of government" in general rather than being the name of a specific city. [23] Such impermanent capitals are a historically widespread phenomenon, having occurred in other parts of Africa such as Ethiopia, as well as outside Africa, such as in the Holy Roman Empire. [32]

Pre-imperial Mali Edit

The Rock art in the Sahara suggests that northern Mali has been inhabited since 10,000 BC, when the Sahara was fertile and rich in wildlife. By 300 BC, large organised settlements had developed, most notable near Djenné, one of West Africa's oldest cities. By the 6th century AD, the lucrative trans-Saharan trade in gold, salt and slaves had begun, facilitating the rise of West Africa's great empires.

There are a few references to Mali in early written literature. Among these are references to "Pene" and "Malal" in the work of al-Bakri in 1068, [33] the story of the conversion of an early ruler, known to Ibn Khaldun (by 1397) as Barmandana, [34] and a few geographical details in the work of al-Idrisi. [35]

In the 1960s, archaeological work at Niani village, reputed to be the capital of the Mali Empire, by Polish and Guinean archaeologists revealed the remains of a substantial town dating back as far as the 6th century. [36]

Modern oral traditions also related that the Mandinka kingdoms of Mali or Manden had already existed several centuries before Sundiata's unification as a small state just to the south of the Soninké empire of Wagadou, better known as the Ghana Empire. [37] This area was composed of mountains, savannah and forest providing ideal protection and resources for the population of hunters. [38] Those not living in the mountains formed small city-states such as Toron, Ka-Ba and Niani. Through the oral tradition of griots, the Keita dynasty, from which nearly every Mali emperor came, claims to trace its lineage back to Lawalo, one of the sons of Bilal, [39] the faithful muezzin of Islam's prophet Muhammad, who was said to have migrated into Mali and his descendants established the ruling Keita dynasty through Maghan Kon Fatta, father of Sundiata Keita. [40]

It was common practice during the Middle Ages for both Christian and Muslim rulers to tie their bloodline back to a pivotal figure in their faith's history, so the lineage of the Keita dynasty may be dubious at best, [41] yet African Muslim scholars like the London-based Nigerian-British cleric Sheikh Abu-Abdullah Adelabu have laid claim of divine attainments to the reign of Mansa Mousa: "in Islamic history and its science stories of Old Mali Empire and significance of Mansa Mousa by ancient Muslim historians like Shihab al-Umari, documenting histories of African legendaries like Mansa Kankan Musa did actually exist in early Arabic sources about West African history including works of the author of Subh al-a 'sha one of the final expressions of the genre of Arabic administrative literature, Ahmad al-Qalqashandi Egyptian writer, mathematician and scribe of the scroll (katib al-darj) in the Mamluk chancery in Cairo [42] as well as by the author of Kitab al-Masalik wa al-Mamalik (Book of Highways and Kingdoms) Abū ʿUbayd Al-Bakri, an Arab Andalusian Muslim geographer and historian emboldened Keita Dynasty", wrote Adelabu.

In his attempt to justify the importance of the Keita and their civilisation in early Arabic literatures, Adelabu, the head of Awqaf Africa in London, coined the Arabic derivatives ك – و – ي K(a)-W(e)-Y(a) of the word Keita which in (in what he called) Arabicised Mandingo language Allah(u) Ka(w)eia meaning "Allah Creates All" as a favourable motto of reflection for Bilal Ibn Rabah, one of the most trusted and loyal Sahabah (companions) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, whom he described (quoting William Muir's book The Life of Muhammad) as 'a tall, dark, and with African feature and bushy hair' [43] pious man who overcame slavery, racism and socio-political obstacles in Arabia to achieve a lofty status in this world and in the Hereafter. [44]

The Manding Region Edit

The history of the Mandinka started in Manding/Manden region. This region straddles the border between what is now southern Mali and northeastern Guinea. Hunters from the Ghana Empire (or Wagadou), particularly mythical ancestors Kontron and Sanin, founded Manding and the Malinké and Bambaras hunter brotherhood. The area was famous as a hunting ground for the large amount of game that it sheltered, as well as its dense vegetation. The Camara (or Kamara) are said to be the first family to have lived in Manding, after having left, due to the drought, Ouallata, a region of Wagadou, in the south-east of present-day Mauritania. They founded the first village of the Manding, Kirikoroni, then Kirina, Siby, Kita. A very large number of families that make up the Mandinka community were born in Manding.

The Kangaba province Edit

During the height of Sundiata's power, the land of Manden (the area populated by the Mandinka people) became one of its provinces. [46] The Manden city-state of Ka-ba (present-day Kangaba) served as the capital and name of this province. From at least the beginning of the 11th century, Mandinka kings known as faamas ruled Manden from Ka-ba in the name of the Ghanas. [47]

The two kingdoms Edit

Wagadou's control over Manden came to a halt after internal instability lead to its decline. [48] The Kangaba province, free of Soninké influence, splintered into twelve kingdoms with their own maghan (meaning prince) or faama. [49] Manden was split in half with the Dodougou territory to the northeast and the Kri territory to the southwest. [50] The tiny kingdom of Niani was one of several in the Kri area of Manden.

The Kaniaga rulers Edit

In approximately 1140 the Sosso kingdom of Kaniaga, a former vassal of Wagadou, began conquering the lands of its old rulers. By 1180 it had even subjugated Wagadou forcing the Soninké to pay tribute. In 1203, the Sosso king Soumaoro of the Kanté clan came to power and reportedly terrorised much of Manden stealing women and goods from both Dodougou and Kri. [51]

The Hungering Lion Edit

According to Niane's version of the epic, during the rise of Kaniaga, Sundiata of the Keita clan was born in the early 13th century. He was the son of Niani's faama, Nare Fa (also known as Maghan Kon Fatta meaning the handsome prince). Sundiata's mother was Maghan Kon Fatta's second wife, Sogolon Kédjou. [39] She was a hunchback from the land of Do, south of Mali. The child of this marriage received the first name of his mother (Sogolon) and the surname of his father (Djata). Combined in the rapidly spoken language of the Mandinka, the names formed Sondjata, Sundjata or Sundiata Keita. [39] The anglicised version of this name, Sunjata, is also popular. In Ibn Khaldun's account, Sundjata is recorded as Mari Djata with "Mari" meaning "Amir" or "Prince". He also states that Djata or "Jatah" means "lion". [52]

Prince Sundjata was prophesied to become a great conqueror. To his parent's dread, the prince did not have a promising start. Sundiata, according to the oral traditions, did not walk until he was seven years old. [49] However, once Sundiata did gain use of his legs he grew strong and very respected. Sadly for Sundjata, this did not occur before his father died. Despite the faama of Niani's wishes to respect the prophecy and put Sundiata on the throne, the son from his first wife Sassouma Bérété was crowned instead. As soon as Sassouma's son Dankaran Touman took the throne, he and his mother forced the increasingly popular Sundjata into exile along with his mother and two sisters. Before Dankaran Touman and his mother could enjoy their unimpeded power, King Soumaoro set his sights on Niani forcing Dankaran to flee to Kissidougou. [39]

After many years in exile, first at the court of Wagadou and then at Mema, Sundiata was sought out by a Niani delegation and begged to combat the Sosso and free the kingdoms of Manden forever.

Battle of Kirina Edit

Returning with the combined armies of Mema, Wagadou and all the rebellious Mandinka city-states, Maghan Sundiata led a revolt against the Kaniaga Kingdom around 1234. [53] The combined forces of northern and southern Manden defeated the Sosso army at the Battle of Kirina (then known as Krina) in approximately 1235. [54] This victory resulted in the fall of the Kaniaga kingdom and the rise of the Mali Empire. After the victory, King Soumaoro disappeared, and the Mandinka stormed the last of the Sosso cities. Maghan Sundiata was declared "faama of faamas" and received the title "mansa", which translates roughly to emperor. At the age of 18, he gained authority over all the 12 kingdoms in an alliance known as the Manden Kurufaba. He was crowned under the throne name Sunidata Keita becoming the first Mandinka emperor. And so the name Keita became a clan/family and began its reign. [49]

Mari Djata I/Sundiata Keita I Edit

Mansa Mari Djata, later named Sundiata Keita, saw the conquest of several key locals in the Mali Empire. He never took the field again after Kirina, but his generals continued to expand the frontier, especially in the west where they reached the Gambia River and the marches of Tekrur. This enabled him to rule over a realm larger than even the Ghana Empire in its apex. [54] When the campaigning was done, his empire extended 1,000 miles (1,600 km) east to west with those borders being the bends of the Senegal and Niger rivers respectively. [55] After unifying Manden, he added the Wangara goldfields, making them the southern border. The northern commercial towns of Oualata and Audaghost were also conquered and became part of the new state's northern border. Wagadou and Mema became junior partners in the realm and part of the imperial nucleus. The lands of Bambougou, Jalo (Fouta Djallon), and Kaabu were added into Mali by Fakoli Koroma (Nkrumah in Ghana, Kurumah in the Gambia, Colley in Casamance, Senegal), [49] Fran Kamara (Camara) and Tiramakhan Traore (Tarawelley in the Gambia), [56] respectively Among the many different ethnic groups surrounding Manden were Pulaar speaking groups in Macina, Tekrur and Fouta Djallon.

Imperial Mali Edit

Imperial Mali is best known through three primary sources: the first is the account of Shihab al-'Umari, written in about 1340 by a geographer-administrator in Mamluk Egypt. His information about the empire came from visiting Malians taking the hajj, or pilgrim's voyage to Mecca. He had first-hand information from several sources, and from a second-hand source, he learned of the visit of Mansa Musa. The second account is that of the traveller Ibn Battuta, who visited Mali in 1352. This is the first account of a West African kingdom made directly by an eyewitness the others are usually second-hand. The third great account is that of Ibn Khaldun, who wrote in the early 15th century. While the accounts are of limited length, they provide a fairly good picture of the empire at its height.

The Emperors of Mali Edit

There were 21 known mansas of the Mali Empire after Mari Djata I, and probably about two or three more yet to be revealed. The names of these rulers come down through history via the djelis and modern descendants of the Keita dynasty residing in Kangaba. What separates these rulers from the founder, other than the latter's historic role in establishing the state, is their transformation of the Manden Kurufaba into a Manden Empire. Not content to rule fellow Manding subjects unified by the victory of Mari Djata I, these mansas would conquer and annex Fula, [57] Wolof, Bamana, Songhai, Tuareg and countless other peoples into an immense empire.

Sundiata Keita lineage (1250–1275) Edit

The first three successors to Mari Djata/Sundiata Keita all claimed it by blood right or something similar. This twenty-five-year period saw large gains for the mansa and the beginning of fierce internal rivalries that nearly ended the burgeoning empire.

Ouali Keita I Edit

After Sundiata's death in 1255, custom dictated that his son ascend the throne, assuming he was of age. However, Yérélinkon was a minor following his father's death. [58] Manding Bory Keita, Sundiata's half-brother and kankoro-sigui (vizier), should have been crowned according to the Kouroukan Fouga. Instead, Mari Djata's son seized the throne and was crowned Mansa Ouali Keita (also spelt "Wali" or "Ali"). [59]

Mansa Ouali Keita proved to be an efficient emperor, adding more lands to the empire, including the Gambian provinces of Bati and Casa. He also conquered the gold-producing provinces of Bambuk and Bondou. The central province of Konkodougou was established. The Songhai kingdom of Gao also seems to have been subjugated for the first of many times around this period. [60]

Aside from military conquest, Ouali is also credited with agricultural reforms throughout the empire putting many soldiers to work as farmers in the newly acquired Gambian provinces. Just prior to his death in 1270, Ouali went on the hajj to Mecca during the reign of Mamluk Sultan Baibars, according to Ibn Khaldun. [59] This helped in strengthening ties with North Africa and Muslim merchants. [60]

The generals' sons Edit

As a policy of controlling and rewarding his generals, Mari Djata adopted their sons. [49] These children were raised at the mansa's court and became Keitas upon reaching maturity. Seeing the throne as their right, two adopted sons of Mari Djata waged a devastating war against one another that threatened to destroy what the first two mansas had built. The first son to gain the throne was Mansa Ouati Keita (also spelt Wati) in 1270. [61] He reigned for four years, spending lavishly and ruling cruelly, according to the djelis. Upon his death in 1274, the other adopted son seized the throne. [61] Mansa Khalifa Keita is remembered as even worse than Ouati Keita. According to the djelis, he governed just as badly, was insane and fired arrows from the roof of his palace at passers by. Ibn Khaldun recounts that the people rushed upon him and killed him during a popular revolt. [59] The Gbara replaced him with Manding Bory Keita in 1275. [62]

The court mansas (1275–1300) Edit

After the chaos of Ouati Keita and Khalifa Keita's reigns, a number of court officials with close ties to Sundiata Keita ruled. They began the empire's return to stability, setting it up for a golden age of rulers.

Abubakari Keita I Edit

Manding Bory was crowned under the throne name Mansa Abubakari (a Manding corruption of the Muslim name Abu Bakr). [49] Mansa Abubakari's mother was Namandjé, [49] the third wife of Maghan Kon Fatta. Prior to becoming mansa, Abubakari had been one of his brother's generals and later his kankoro-sigui. Little else is known about the reign of Abubakari I, but it seems he was successful in stopping the hemorrhaging of wealth in the empire.

Sakoura Edit

In 1285, a court slave freed by Sundiata Keita, and who had also served as a general, usurped the throne of Mali. [60] The reign of Mansa Sakoura (also spelt Sakura) appears to have been beneficial, despite the political shake-up. He added the first conquests to Mali since the reign of Ouali, including the former Wagadou provinces of Tekrour and Diara. His conquests did not stop at the boundaries of Wagadou, however. He campaigned into Senegal and conquered the Wolof province of Dyolof (Jolof), then took the army east to subjugate the copper-producing area of Takedda. He also conquered Macina and raided into Gao to suppress its first rebellion against Mali. [60] More than just a mere warrior, Mansa Sakoura went on the hajj during the reign of Al-Nasir Muhammad. [59] Mansa Sakura also opened direct trade negotiations with Tripoli and Morocco. [60]

According to one account, Sakoura was murdered on his return trip from Mecca in or near present-day Djibouti by a Danakil warrior attempting to rob him. [63] The emperor's attendants rushed his body home through the Ouaddai region and into Kanem where one of that empire's messengers was sent to Mali with news of Sakoura's death. When the body arrived in Niani, it was given a regal burial despite the usurper's slave roots. [63]

The Kolonkan Keita lineage (1300–1312) Edit

The Gbara selected Ko Mamadi Keita as the next mansa in 1300. He was the first of a new line of rulers directly descending from Sundiata Keita's sister, Kolonkan Keita. [49] But, seeing as how these rulers all shared the blood of Maghan Kon Fatta, they are considered legitimate Keitas. Even Sakoura, with his history of being a slave in the Keita family, was considered a Keita so the line of Bilal had yet to be broken.

It is during the Kolonkan Keita lineage that the defining characteristics of golden age Mali begin to appear. By maintaining the developments of Sakoura and Abubakari Keita I, the Kolonkan Keita mansas steered Mali safely into its apex.

The Gao mansas Edit

Ko Mamadi Keita was crowned Mansa Gao Keita and ruled over a successful empire without any recorded crises. His son, Mansa Mohammed ibn Gao Keita, ascended the throne five years later and continued the stability of the Kolonkan Keita line. [49]

Abubakari Keita II Edit

The last Kolonkan ruler, Bata Manding Bory Keita, was crowned Mansa Abubakari Keita II in 1310. [49] He continued the non-militant style of rule that characterised Gao and Mohammed ibn Gao Keita but was interested in the empire's western sea. According to an account given by Mansa Musa Keita I, who during the reign of Abubakari Keita II served as the mansa's kankoro-sigui, Mali sent two expeditions into the Atlantic Ocean. Mansa Abubakari Keita II left Musa Keita as regent of the empire, demonstrating the stability of this period in Mali, and departed with the second expedition, commanding some 2,000 ships equipped with both oars and sails in 1311. [64] Neither the emperor nor any of the ships returned to Mali. Modern historians and scientists are skeptical about the success of either voyage, but the account of these happenings is preserved in both written North African records and the oral records of Mali's djelis.

The Laye Keita lineage (1312–1389) Edit

Abubakari Keita II's 1312 abdication, the only recorded one in the empire's history, marked the beginning of a new lineage descended from Faga Laye Keita. [49] Faga Laye Keita was the son of Abubakari Keita I. Unlike his father, Faga Laye Keita never took the throne of Mali. However, his line would produce seven mansas who reigned during the height of Mali's power and toward the beginning of its decline.

Musa Keita I (Mansa Musa) Edit

The first ruler from the Laye lineage was Kankan Musa Keita (or Moussa), also known as Mansa Musa. After an entire year without word from Abubakari Keita II, he was crowned Mansa Musa Keita. Mansa Musa Keita was one of the first truly devout Muslims to lead the Mali Empire. He attempted to make Islam the faith of the nobility, [60] but kept to the imperial tradition of not forcing it on the populace. He also made Eid celebrations at the end of Ramadan a national ceremony. He could read and write Arabic and took an interest in the scholarly city of Timbuktu, which he peaceably annexed in 1324. Via one of the royal ladies of his court, Musa transformed Sankore from an informal madrasah into an Islamic university. Islamic studies flourished thereafter.

Mansa Musa Keita's crowning achievement was his famous pilgrimage to Mecca, which started in 1324 and concluded with his return in 1326. Accounts of how many people and how much gold he spent vary. All of them agree that he took a very large group of people the mansa kept a personal guard of some 500 men, [65] and he gave out so many alms and bought so many things that the value of gold in Egypt and Arabia depreciated for twelve years. [66] When he passed through Cairo, historian al-Maqrizi noted "the members of his entourage proceeded to buy Turkish and Ethiopian slave girls, singing girls and garments, so that the rate of the gold dinar fell by six dirhams."

Another testimony from Ibn Khaldun describes the grand pilgrimage of Mansa Musa consisting of 12,000 slaves:

"He made a pilgrimage in 724/1324 [. ]. At each halt, he would regale us [his entourage] rare foods and confectionery. His equipment furnishings were carried by 12.000 private slave women (Wasaif) wearing gown and brocade (dibaj) and Yemeni silk [. ]. Mansa Musa came from his country with 80 loads of gold dust (tibr), each load weighing three qintars. In their own country they use only slave women and men for transport, but for long journeys such as pilgrimages they have mounts." [67]

Contemporary sources suggest that the mounts employed by this caravan were one hundred elephants, which carried those loads of gold, and several hundred camels, carrying the food, supplies and weaponries which were brought to the rear. [68]

Musa took out large loans from money lenders in Cairo before beginning his journey home. It is not known if this was an attempt to correct the depreciation of gold in the area due to his spending, [69] or if he had simply run out of the funds needed for the return trip. [70] Musa's hajj, and especially his gold, caught the attention of both the Islamic and Christian worlds. Consequently, the name of Mali and Timbuktu appeared on 14th century world maps.

While on the hajj, he met the Andalusian poet and architect es-Saheli. Mansa Musa brought the architect back to Mali to beautify some of the cities. But more reasoned analysis suggests that his role, if any, was quite limited. The architectural crafts in Granada had reached their zenith by the fourteenth century, and its extremely unlikely that a cultured and wealthy poet would have had anything more than a dilettante's knowledge of the intricacies of contemporary architectural practice. [71] Mosques were built in Gao and Timbuktu along with impressive palaces also built in Timbuktu. By the time of his death in 1337, Mali had control over Taghazza, a salt-producing area in the north, which further strengthened its treasury.

That same year, after the Mandinka general known as Sagmandir put down yet another rebellion in Gao, [60] Mansa Musa came to Gao and accepted the capitulation of the King of Ghana and his nobles.

By the end of Mansa Musa's reign, the Sankoré University had been converted into a fully staffed university with the largest collections of books in Africa since the Library of Alexandria. The Sankoré University was capable of housing 25,000 students and had one of the largest libraries in the world with roughly 1,000,000 manuscripts. [72] [73]

Mansa Musa Keita was succeeded by his son, Maghan Keita I, in 1337. [60] Mansa Maghan Keita I spent wastefully and was the first lacklustre emperor since Khalifa Keita. But the Mali Empire built by his predecessors was too strong for even his misrule and it passed intact to Musa's brother, Souleyman Keita in 1341.

Souleyman Keita Edit

Mansa Souleyman Keita (or Suleiman) took steep measures to put Mali back into financial shape, thereby developing a reputation for miserliness. [60] However, he proved to be a good and strong ruler despite numerous challenges. It is during his reign that Fula raids on Takrur began. There was also a palace conspiracy to overthrow him hatched by the Qasa (the Manding term meaning Queen) Kassi and several army commanders. [60] Mansa Souleyman's generals successfully fought off the military incursions, and the senior wife Kassi behind the plot was imprisoned.

The mansa also made a successful hajj, kept up correspondence with Morocco and Egypt and built an earthen platform at Kangaba called the Camanbolon where he held court with provincial governors and deposited the holy books he brought back from Hedjaz.

The only major setback to his reign was the loss of Mali's Dyolof province in Senegal. The Wolof populations of the area united into their own state known as the Jolof Empire in the 1350s. Still, when Ibn Battuta arrived at Mali in July 1352, he found a thriving civilisation on par with virtually anything in the Muslim or Christian world. Mansa Souleyman Keita died in 1360 and was succeeded by his son, Camba Keita.

The North African traveller and scholar Ibn Battuta visited the area in 1352 and, according to a 1929 English translation, said this about its inhabitants:

"The negroes possess some admirable qualities. They are seldom unjust, and have a greater abhorrence of injustice than any other people. There is complete security in their country . Neither traveller nor inhabitant in it has anything to fear from robbers or men of violence." [74]

The Travels of Ibn Battuta Edit

Abu Abdallah Ibn Battuta was born in Morocco in the year 1304. Years later during his mandatory pilgrimage to Mecca as a Muslim and a qadi (Muslim judge), he decided that what he wished to do most was travel to and beyond every part of the Muslim world. Upon this realization, Ibn made a personal vow to 'never travel any road a second time". He began on his long and eventful journey, making many stops along the way.

It was in Cairo, Egypt, that he first heard of the great ruler of Mali- Mansa Musa. A few years prior to Battuta's visit, Mansa Musa had passed through Cairo as well on his own pilgrimage to Mecca. He had brought with him a large entourage of slaves, soldiers and wives, along with over a thousand pounds of gold. With this he 'flooded' Cairo to the point of disrupting the entire gold market for decades to come. Aside from gold Mali traded many other lavish resources and its riches were spoken of widely, along with encouraging Islam across Africa. There is no doubt that, even after his long and tiring travels, a curious Ibn Battuta would saddle up again to make the long journey across the Sahara (1,500 miles) and into the Kingdom of Mali. After entering the country and staying for eight long months, Ibn left with mixed feelings.

At first his impressions were not good- as a meal he was offered a bowl of millet with honey and yogurt. Seeing this as offensive, he wished to leave as soon as possible. During his stay he was also fed rice, milk, fish, chicken, melons, pumpkins and yams (that would end up making him very ill). From the King, he was gifted three loaves of bread, a gourd full of yogurt, and a piece of beef fried in shea butter. He was insulted by this as well, feeling that the gift was inadequate for him."When I saw it I laughed, and was long astonished at their feeble intellect and their respect for mean things." He was also taken aback by the local customs regarding the sexes. In his mind, man and woman should be separate in an Islamic society. Here the sexes were friends, spent time with one another and were agreeable. Upon his disapproval he was told that their relations were a part of good manners, and that there would be no suspicion attached to it. To his surprise, female servants and slaves also often went completely nude in front of the court to see, which would not have been acceptable as a Muslim- or any kind of- woman. They wore no veil and crawled on their hands and knees, throwing dust over themselves when approaching their ruler, Mansa Sulayman.

Mansa Sulayman was the younger brother of Mansa Musa who took reign after he died. The public ceremony he attended was strange to him but grand, as he observed from the audience. "[The sultan] has a lofty pavilion . where he sits most of the time. There came forth from the gate of the palace about 300 slaves, some carrying in their hands bows and others having in their hands short lances and shields. Then two saddled and bridled horses are brought, with two rams which, they say, are effective against the evil eye. The interpreter stands at the gate of the council-place wearing fine garments of silk. and on his head a turban with fringes which they have a novel way of winding. The troops, governors, young men, slaves, . and others sit outside the council-place in a broad street where there are trees. Anyone who wishes to address the sultan addresses the interpreter and the interpreter addresses a man standing [near the sultan] and that man standing addresses the sultan".

While he had his grievances, there were parts of Mali that Ibn Battuta found to be exceptional. For one, the safety in the streets of Mali went unmatched. The city was very secure with many guards and it was said that no man walked afraid in the streets of Mali. The people also held justice to a very high standard and that was notable for Ibn. Most importantly, he was impressed with the peoples devotion to Islam. There were mosques there that people visited regularly, and they always prayed on Friday, the holy prayer day established by Mansa Musa for Muslims. The citizens wished to learn more about the Islamic faith and seemed to be very involved with the teaching of the Quran. [75] Although many had converted and had a zeal for Islam, there were many common people who still held on to their traditional African religions. Mansa Sulayman had to appease these people as well, which is something that Ibn may not have considered and viewed as an insult to Islam. In the end, Sulayman attempted to appease him by giving him a house to stay at and an allowance as well. Upon his departure, Ibn left with 100 mithqals ($15,501.84) of gold and diverse feelings towards the kingdom of Mali.

Modern Mali Edit

Where the empire of Mali reigned covered the modern day areas of Mali, Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia and Guinea, along with small regions of the Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, and Niger. For the most part Mali is covered, with the rest just having areas of the ancient empire cross into their borders. After a series of unsuccessful successions and exchanges of power and changes of ruler, the Empire of Mali was weakened greatly. As a result of these issues a civil war erupted upon the Kingdom which further incapacitated old Mali. Because of the war going on, trade was disrupted. Trade was a huge reason that the empire was thriving economically, and so its disruption led to a direct collapse of the empire entirely.

Mari Djata Keita II Edit

After a mere nine months of rule, Mansa Camba Keita was deposed by one of Maghan Keita I's three sons. Konkodougou Kamissa Keita, named for the province he once governed, [49] was crowned as Mansa Mari Djata Keita II in 1360. He ruled oppressively and nearly bankrupted Mali with his lavish spending. He did however, maintain contacts with Morocco, sending a giraffe to King Abu Hassan. Mansa Mari Djata Keita II became seriously ill in 1372, [60] and power moved into the hands of his ministers until his death in 1374.

Musa Keita II Edit

The reign of Mari Djata Keita II was ruinous and left the empire in bad financial shape, but the empire itself passed intact to the dead emperor's brother. Mansa Fadima Musa Keita, or Mansa Musa Keita II, began the process of reversing his brother's excesses. [60] He did not, however, hold the power of previous mansas because of the influence of his kankoro-sigui.

Kankoro-sigui Mari Djata, who had no relation to the Keita clan, essentially ran the empire in Musa Keita II's stead. Ibn Khaldun recorded that in 776 A.H or 1374/1375 AD he interviewed a Sijilmasan scholar named Muhammad b. Wasul who had lived in Gao and had been employed in its judiciary. The latter told Ibn Khaldun about devastating struggle over Gao between Mali imperial forces against Berber Tuareg forces from Takedda. [76] The text of Ibn Khaldun says "Gao, at this time is devastated". [76] It seems quite possible that an exodus of the inhabitants took place at this juncture and the importance of the city was not revived until the rise of the Songhai empire. [76]

The Songhai settlement effectively shook off Mali's authority in 1375. Still, by the time of Mansa Musa Keita II's death in 1387, Mali was financially solvent and in control of all of its previous conquests short of Gao and Dyolof. Forty years after the reign of Mansa Musa Keita I, the Mali Empire still controlled some 1,100,000 square kilometres (420,000 sq mi) of land throughout Western Africa. [77] [11]

Maghan Keita II Edit

The last son of Maghan Keita I, Tenin Maghan Keita (also known as Kita Tenin Maghan Keita for the province he once governed) was crowned Mansa Maghan Keita II in 1387. [49] Little is known of him except that he only reigned two years. He was deposed in 1389, marking the end of the Faga Laye Keita mansas.

The obscure lineages (1389–1545) Edit

From 1389 onwards Mali gained a host of mansas of obscure origins. This is the least known period in Mali's imperial history. What is evident is that there is no steady lineage governing the empire. The other characteristic of this era is the gradual loss of its northern and eastern possessions to the rising Songhai Empire and the movement of the Mali's economic focus from the trans-Saharan trade routes to the burgeoning commerce along the coast.

Sandaki Keita Edit

Mansa Sandaki Keita, a descendant of kankoro-sigui Mari Djata Keita, deposed Maghan Keita II, becoming the first person without any Keita dynastic relation to officially rule Mali. [60] Sandaki Keita should not however be taken to be this person's name but a title. Sandaki likely means High Counsellor or Supreme Counsellor, from san or sanon (meaning "high") and adegue (meaning counsellor). [78] He would only reign a year before a descendant of Mansa Gao Keita removed him. [49]

Maghan Keita III Edit

Mahmud Keita, possibly a grandchild or great-grandchild of Mansa Gao Keita, was crowned Mansa Maghan Keita III in 1390. During his reign, the Mossi emperor Bonga of Yatenga raided into Mali and plundered Macina. [60] Emperor Bonga did not appear to hold the area, and it stayed within the Mali Empire after Maghan Keita III's death in 1400.

Musa Keita III Edit

In the early 15th century, Mali was still powerful enough to conquer and settle new areas. One of these was Dioma, an area south of Niani populated by Fula Wassoulounké. [49] Two noble brothers from Niani, of unknown lineage, went to Dioma with an army and drove out the Fula Wassoulounké. The oldest brother, Sérébandjougou Keita, was crowned Mansa Foamed or Mansa Musa Keita III. His reign saw the first in a string of many great losses to Mali. In 1430, the Tuareg seized Timbuktu. [79] Three years later, Oualata also fell into their hands. [60]

Ouali Keita II Edit

Following Musa Keita III's death, his brother Gbèré Keita became emperor in the mid-15th century. [49] Gbèré Keita was crowned Mansa Ouali Keita II and ruled during the period of Mali's contact with Portugal. In the 1450s, Portugal began sending raiding parties along the Gambian coast. [80] The Gambia was still firmly in Mali's control, and these raiding expeditions met with disastrous fates before Portugal's Diogo Gomes began formal relations with Mali via its remaining Wolof subjects. [81] Alvise Cadamosto, a Venetian explorer, recorded that the Mali Empire was the most powerful entity on the coast in 1454. [81]

Despite their power in the west, Mali was losing the battle for supremacy in the north and northeast. The new Songhai Empire conquered Mema, [60] one of Mali's oldest possessions, in 1465. It then seized Timbuktu from the Tuareg in 1468 under Sunni Ali Ber. [60]

In 1477, the Yatenga emperor Nasséré made yet another Mossi raid into Macina, this time conquering it and the old province of BaGhana (Wagadou). [82]

Mansa Mahmud Keita II Edit

Mansa Mahmud Keita II came to the throne in 1481 during Mali's downward spiral. It is unknown from whom he descended however, another emperor, Mansa Maghan Keita III, is sometimes cited as Mansa Mahmud Keita I. Still, throne names do not usually indicate blood relations. Mansa Mahmud Keita II's rule was characterised by more losses to Mali's old possessions and increased contact between Mali and Portuguese explorers along the coast. In 1481, Fula raids against Mali's Tekrur provinces began.

The growing trade in Mali's western provinces with Portugal witnessed the exchange of envoys between the two nations. Mansa Mahmud Keita II received the Portuguese envoys Pêro d'Évora and Gonçalo Enes in 1487. [49] The mansa lost control of Jalo during this period. [83] Meanwhile, Songhai seized the salt mines of Taghazza in 1493. That same year, Mahmud II sent another envoy to the Portuguese proposing alliance against the Fula. The Portuguese decided to stay out of the conflict and the talks concluded by 1495 without an alliance. [83]

Mansa Mahmud Keita III Edit

The last mansa to rule from Niani is Mansa Mahmud Keita III, also known as Mansa Mamadou Keita II. He came to power around 1496 and has the dubious honour of being the mansa under which Mali suffered the most losses to its territory.

Songhai forces under the command of Askia Muhammad I defeated the Mali general Fati Quali Keita in 1502 and seized the province of Diafunu. [60] In 1514, the Denianke dynasty was established in Tekrour. It wasn't long before the new kingdom of Great Fulo was warring against Mali's remaining provinces. Additionally, the Songhai Empire seized the copper mines of Takedda.

In 1534, Mahmud Keita III received another Portuguese envoy to the Mali court by the name of Pero Fernandes. [84] This envoy from the Portuguese coastal port of Elmina arrived in response to the growing trade along the coast and Mali's now urgent request for military assistance against Songhai. [85] Still, no help came from the envoy and further possessions of Mali were lost one by one.

Mansa Mahmud Keita III's reign also saw the military outpost and province of Kaabu become independent in 1537. [83] The Kaabu Empire appears as ambitions as Mali was in its early years and conquers Mali's remaining Gambian provinces of Cassa and Bati. [86]

The most defining moment in Mahmud Keita III's reign is arguably the final conflict between Mali and Songhai in 1545. Songhai forces under Askia Ishaq's brother, Daoud, sack Niani and occupy the palace. [87] Mansa Mahmud Keita III is forced to flee Niani for the mountains. Within a week, he regroups with his forces and launches a successful counter-attack forcing the Songhai out of Manden proper for good. [88] The Songhai Empire keeps Mali's ambitions in check, but never fully conquers the empire, their former masters.

After liberating the capital, Mahmud Keita II abandons it for a new residence further north. [88] Still, there is no end to Mali's troubles. In 1559, the kingdom of Fouta Tooro succeeds in taking Takrur. [83] This defeat reduces Mali to Manden proper with control extending only as far as Kita in the west, Kangaba in the north, the Niger River bend in the east and Kouroussa in the south.

Late imperial Mali Edit

Mansa Mahmud III's reign ended around 1559. There seems to have been either a vacancy or unknown ruler between 1559 and the start of the last mansa's reign. A vacancy or rule by a court official seems the most likely, since the next ruler takes the name of Mahmud IV. By 1560, the once powerful empire was not much more than the core of the Manden Kurufaba. The next notable mansa, Mahmud IV, doesn't appear in any records until the end of the 16th century. However, he seems to have the distinction of being the last ruler of a unified Manden. His descendants are blamed for the breakup of the Manden Kurufaba into north, central and southern realms.

Mansa Mahmud Keita IV Edit

Mansa Mahmud Keita IV (also known as Mansa Mamadou Keita II, Mali Mansa Mamadou Keita and Niani Mansa Mamadou Keita) was the last emperor of Manden according to the Tarikh al-Sudan. It states that he launched an attack on the city of Djenné in 1599 with Fulani allies, hoping to take advantage of Songhai's defeat. [89] Moroccan fusiliers, deployed from Timbuktu, met them in battle, exposing Mali to the same technology (firearms) that had destroyed Songhai. Despite heavy losses, the mansa's army was not deterred and nearly carried the day. [89] However, the army inside Djenné intervened, forcing Mansa Mahmud Keita IV and his army to retreat to Kangaba. [85]

Collapse Edit

The mansa's defeat actually won Sundiata Keita the respect of Morocco, and may have saved it from Songhai's fate. It would be the Mandinka themselves that would cause the final destruction of the empire. Around 1610, Mahmud Keita IV died. Oral tradition states that he had three sons who fought over Manden's remains. No single Keita ever ruled Manden after Mahmud Keita IV's death, resulting in the end of the Mali Empire. [90]

Manden divided Edit

The old core of the empire was divided into three spheres of influence. Kangaba, the de facto capital of Manden since the time of the last emperor, became the capital of the northern sphere. The Joma area, governed from Siguiri, controlled the central region, which encompassed Niani. Hamana (or Amana), southwest of Joma, became the southern sphere, with its capital at Kouroussa in modern Guinea. [90] Each ruler used the title of mansa, but their authority only extended as far as their own sphere of influence. Despite this disunity in the realm, the realm remained under Mandinka control into the mid-17th century. The three states warred with each other as much, if not more, than they did against outsiders, but rivalries generally stopped when faced with invasion. This trend would continue into colonial times against Tukulor enemies from the west. [91]

The Bamana jihad Edit

Then, in 1630, the Bamana of Djenné declared their version of holy war on all Muslim powers in present-day Mali. [92] They targeted Moroccan pashas still in Timbuktu and the mansas of Manden. In 1645, the Bamana attacked Manden, seizing both banks of the Niger right up to Niani. [92] This campaign gutted Manden and destroyed any hope of the three mansas cooperating to free their land. The only Mandinka power spared from the campaign was Kangaba.

Sack of Niani Edit

Mama Maghan, mansa of Kangaba, campaigned against the Bamana in 1667 and laid siege to Segou–Koro for a reported three years. [93] Segou, defended by Bitòn Coulibaly, successfully defended itself and Mama Maghan was forced to withdraw. [93] Either as a counter-attack or simply the progression of pre-planned assaults against the remnants of Mali, the Bamana sacked and burned Niani in 1670. [92] Their forces marched as far north as Kangaba, where the mansa was obliged to make a peace with them, promising not to attack downstream of Mali. The Bamana, likewise, vowed not to advance farther upstream than Niamina. [94] Following this disastrous set of events, Mansa Mama Maghan abandoned the capital of Niani.

Organization Edit

The Manden Kurufaba founded by Mari Djata it was composed of the "three freely allied states" of Mali, Mema and Wagadou plus the Twelve Doors of Mali. [39] Mali, in this sense, strictly refers to the city-state of Niani.

The Twelve Doors of Mali were a coalition of conquered or allied territories, mostly within Manden, with sworn allegiance to Sundiata and his descendants. Upon stabbing their spears into the ground before Sundiata's throne, each of the twelve kings relinquished their kingdom to the Keita dynasty. [39] In return for their submission, they became "farbas", a combination of the Mandinka words "farin" and "ba" (great farin). [95] Farin was a general term for northern commander at the time. These farbas would rule their old kingdoms in the name of the mansa with most of the authority they held prior to joining the Manden Kurufaba.

The Great Assembly Edit

The Gbara or Great Assembly would serve as the Mandinka deliberative body until the collapse of the Manden Kurufa in 1645. Its first meeting, at the famous Kouroukan Fouga (Division of the World), had 29 clan delegates presided over by a belen-tigui (master of ceremony). The final incarnation of the Gbara, according to the surviving traditions of northern Guinea, held 32 positions occupied by 28 clans. [58]

Social, economic and governmental reformation Edit

The Kouroukan Fouga also put in place social and economic reforms including prohibitions on the maltreatment of prisoners and slaves, installing documents between clans which clearly stated who could say what about whom. Also, Sundiata divided the lands amongst the people assuring everyone had a place in the empire and fixed exchange rates for common products [96]

Administration Edit

The Mali Empire covered a larger area for a longer period of time than any other West African state before or since. What made this possible was the decentralised nature of administration throughout the state. According to Burkinabé writer Joseph Ki-Zerbo, the farther a person travelled from Niani, the more decentralised the mansa's power became. [97] Nevertheless, the mansa managed to keep tax money and nominal control over the area without agitating his subjects into revolt. At the local level (village, town and city), kun-tiguis elected a dougou-tigui (village-master) from a bloodline descended from that locality's semi-mythical founder. [98] The county level administrators called kafo-tigui (county-master) were appointed by the governor of the province from within his own circle. [60] Only at the state or province level was there any palpable interference from the central authority in Niani. Provinces picked their own governors via their own custom (election, inheritance, etc.). Regardless of their title in the province, they were recognised as dyamani-tigui (province master) by the mansa. [60] Dyamani-tiguis had to be approved by the mansa and were subject to his oversight. If the mansa didn't believe the dyamani-tigui was capable or trustworthy, a farba might be installed to oversee the province or administer it outright.

Mali Culture

Religion in Mali

Majority Muslim, with indigenous and Christian minorities.

Social Conventions in Mali

Malians are hospitable people and will welcome visitors gracefully into their homes. Visitors must remember that this is a Muslim country and the religious customs and beliefs of the people should be respected. Modesty in dress, particularly for women, is essential.

Photography: This is no longer restricted, except for military subjects. However, interpretation of what is considered off limits tends to vary. Other subjects may be considered sensitive from a cultural or religious point of view and it is advisable to obtain permission before taking photographs in Mali.

Bambara Resistance and Migration

The Bambara firmly resisted Islam, a religion their rulers had embraced, in favor of their traditional religion and ancestor worship. It may be under the reign of Mansa Musa I (1307 &ndash 1337), who squandered the empire&rsquos vast treasury during his pilgrimage to Mecca, that the Bambara ruptured from the muslim Mandika. They created a secret society, Koma, and named themselves the Banmana, meaning &ldquothe ones who refused submission&rdquo. (From ban, the word for &ldquoend, refuse&rdquo, and mana, meaning &ldquomasters, Mansa&ldquo.)

Over the next few centuries, the Bambara slowly made their way up the Niger river. Some of them broke off to populate the regions of Bougouni, Bamako and Bendougou, while the others kept marching north-east to reach the lands around Djenné and Ségou.

Niangolo and Baramangolo

Of course, such an account of migration cannot go without its own river-crossing themed origin story, so prevalent throughout Africa.

Two brothers, Niangolo and Baramangolo, reached the river &mdash either the Niger or the Boulé, stories vary &mdash enemies hot on their tail. Out of breath and out of luck, they could find no canoe to make their crossing. They despaired as their pursuers drew closer, until an enormous m&rsquopolio (catfish) emerged from the water, kindly offering assistance. Some versions say the catfish ferried them across on his back, others that the fish turned into a bridge for them.

The story goes on to explain that Niangolo, at the urging of his starving wife and children, killed their catfish savior, much to Baramangolo&rsquos chagrin. This foreshadows of the long-lasting rivalry between the brothers, passed down generations to their descendants.

It is said all Bambara at that time took the surname &ldquoCoulibaly&rdquo &mdash also spelled &ldquoKulibali&rdquo &mdash (from kulu, the word for &ldquocanoe&rdquo, and bali meaning &ldquowithout&rdquo). Later, the name &ldquoCoulibaly&rdquo would come to refer only to Baramangolo&rsquos descendants, as Niangolo&rsquos would take the name Massasi. The Coulibaly refuse to eat catfish to this day. Other Bambara do indulge in catfish meat, although they make a point to leave the head intact.

The brothers split up after that. Baramangolo settled on the right bank of the Niger, in Ségou, and Niangolo built a tata (fort) on the left bank, named Baïko.

Assimilation and Rise to Power

The Bambara quickly moved from the status of refugees to that of protectors, and eventually, of masters of their adoptive land.

The Soninke people, mostly traders and some slave-dealers, had lived in the area for generations before the Bambara brothers showed up. Never much interested in soldiering, the Soninke of Ségou welcomed Baramangolo and his warriors, allowing them to defend their borders. In the Baïko region, the Soninke tried many times to storm Niangolo&rsquos fort, but eventually gave up and formed peaceful relations with the newcomers. That is, until captives brought by the Dioula (another Mandé ethnic group of successful merchants) rebelled and joined Niangolo&rsquos forces.

Mali Empire - History

Mali arose as a small kingdom along the upper Niger River. Oral accounts state that the kingdom came into existence before the year 1000 C.E. however, if this is true, it must have been a vassal of the empire of Ghana. Mali probably gained independence with the breakup of Ghana in the early 12th century. During the 13th century, Mali conquered several of its neighbors. The empire reached its zenith during the 14th century when it ruled over a vast West African domain stretching from the Atlantic coast to the middle Niger below Gao. Beginning during the 15th century, Mali began a slow decline. It ceased to exist by the early 18th century.

After the collapse of ancient Ghana, the kingdom of Mali, ruled by the Keita Dynasty, arose among the Mandinka (Malinke) people in the region of Kangaba, spanning the borders of present-day Mali and Guinea. During the 12th century, Mali fell under the dominance of the kingdom of Soso (also known as Susu or Sosso, names carried today by a Guinean people). In 1230 a king named Mari Diata came to the throne and threw off the oppressive Soso yoke. According to the Arab geographer Ibn Khaldun, Mari Diata waged a war of expansion between 1230 and 1234. He conquered Soso and its dependent states with the aid of an alliance of Mandinka chiefs. Celebrating his success and bravery, people began to call him Sundiata, or "lion prince" Mali's power increased after Sundiata gained control of vital trans-Saharan trade routes and the gold mines of Bouré on the banks of the Tinkisso River (in present-day Guinea.) Revenues from the gold trade supported the growth of Mali.

The Mandinka alliance coalesced into a federation. The early Mali empire may have had a number of capitals. Ibn Khaldun stated during the 14th century that the empire's capital was a city named Mali, while the 16th-century Arab geographer, Leo Africanus, named Niani (in present-day Guinea) as the capital. Some historians claim that Kangaba was the original capital of Mali, prior to Niani. Others maintain that the original capital of Mali was Djariba (or Dioliba), also in present-day Guinea. Scholars remain uncertain about whether the empire maintained several capitals simultaneously for defensive reasons, or if it occupied a succession of capital cities.

A complex system of lineages and other kin groups, organized geographically, formed the basis of the empire's social and political organization. Slave labor produced the food surpluses that underlay the power of Mali's rulers and lineage chiefs. Slaves lacked kinship ties, and Mali's ruling elite prized slaves for their loyalty. Slaves played an important role in Mali as royal administrators and soldiers. Indeed, a court slave, Sakura, ruled the empire for a decade, from 1298-1308.

Apart from Sakura, a series of unspectacular monarchs carried the title of mansa, or king, after Sundiata died in 1260. Mali's most famous and powerful king, known as Mansa Musa I, ruled from 1307 to 1337. During his reign, Mali reached its height of power and its greatest geographical extent. Mansa Musa's spectacular hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca, spread the fame of Mali throughout the Islamic world — and even in Europe, where Mali appeared on contemporary maps for the first time. On his way to Mecca in 1324, he spent so much gold in Cairo that the precious metal suffered a serious loss in value.

Following the death of Mansa Musa in 1337, Mali began to decline in power. The Arab geographer and historian Ibn Battutah recorded divisive succession struggles during his visit to Mali in the mid-14th century. A series of ineffective and autocratic rulers depleted the state's treasury and weakened its military prowess. The empire's internal weakness inspired outlying provinces and neighboring peoples to challenge its power. About the time of Mansa Musa's death, the empire's easternmost province, Songhai, broke away, and over the following two centuries conquered much of Mali's former territory. Meanwhile, the Mossi attacked Timbuctu. Despite this, Mali persisted into the 16th century as a powerful kingdom within its original Mandinka homeland in the upper Niger basin. Portuguese explorers of the 15th century continued to record the existence of a Mali whose power continued to extend to the Atlantic coast. Likewise, Leo Africanus visited the region in the early 16th century, depicting a Mali of reduced but still substantial size.

However, in 1542 the Songhai invaded the city of Mali, forcing its rulers to flee temporarily. While Mali kings returned to power, the Bambara kingdoms of Segu and Kaarta gradually absorbed much of Mali's remaining territory during the 17th century. By the 18th century, Mali had ceased to exist, but the Keita Dynasty continued to rule as provincial chiefs in their ancestral home, Kangaba.

Mansa Mūsā led a military effort to subdue areas of Niger, which effectively doubled the empire’s territory and made it as large as western Europe, and captured the important trade-route city of Timbuktu in 1324. Later that year, he made a famous pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca. He traveled via Cairo and reportedly brought with him a retinue of twelve thousand, as well as several trunks of gold dust that he traded for various goods. He traded with so much gold that the price of this precious metal on the important Cairo gold market was depressed for several years after his departure.

Mansa Mūsā was the last strong leader of the Mali Empire. His descendants failed to maintain unity, and as a result, Mali territory was lost to invaders. The Tuareg headed into northern areas, and elsewhere the Songhai emerged as a formidable rival and eventually overtook what remained of the Mali Empire. Reports of Mansa Mūsā’s foreign travels, and the obviously immense wealth of his empire, circulated in Europe long after his 1324 journey, and undoubtedly sparked interest in the expeditions that led to the colonial exploitation of Africa. For generations, a common representation of West African lands on primitive maps was a black king sitting atop a gold nugget, said to represent Mansa Mūsā and his empire’s riches.

Davidson, Basil. African Civilization Revisited: From Antiquity to Modern Times. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1991.

Jackson, John G. Introduction to African Civilizations. New York: Citadel Press, 2001.

Ki-Zerbo, Joseph, and DjiBril Tamsir Niane, eds. UNESCO General History of Africa. Vol. 4, Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.

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