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1884 Democratic Convention - History

1884 Democratic Convention - History


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Chicago, IL

July 8 to 11, 1884

Nominated: Grover Cleveland, of New Hampshire for President

Nominated: Thomas a Hendricks, of Indiana for Vice President

The democratic conventioned opened with four contendors for the nomination. They were Alen G Thurman of Ohio, Thomas A Hendricks of Indiana, Thomas Bayard of Delaware and Grover Cleveland of New York. Cleveland was the governor of New York and the favorite. His reputation as a reformer however made him an enemy of Tammany Hall. They opposed his nomination and tried to engineer the selection fo Thomas Hendricks. Cleveland took and early lead on the ballots and on the fourth balllot, delegates switch their support and put Cleveland over the top.


1884 Democratic Party Platform

The Democratic party of the Union, through its representatives in National Convention assembled, recognizes that, as the nation grows older, new issues are born of time and progress, and old issues perish. But the fundamental principles of the Democracy, approved by the united voice of the people, remain, and will ever remain, as the best and only security for the continuance of free government The preservation of personal rights the equality of all citizens before the law the reserved rights of the States and the supremacy of the Federal Government within the limits of the Constitution, will ever form the true basis of our liberties, and can never be surrendered without destroying that balance of rights and powers which enables a continent to be developed in peace, and social order to be maintained by means of local self-government.

But it is indispensable for the practical application and enforcement of these fundamental principles, that the Government should not always be controlled by one political party. Frequent change of administration is as necessary as constant recurrence to the popular will. Otherwise abuses grow, and the Government, instead of being carried on for the general welfare, becomes an instrumentality for imposing heavy burdens on the many who are governed, for the benefit of the few who govern. Public servants thus become arbitrary rulers.

This is now the condition of the country. Hence a change is demanded. The Republican party, so far as principle is concerned, is a reminiscence in practice, it is an organization for enriching those who control its machinery. The frauds and jobbery which have been brought to light in every department of the Government, are sufficient to have called for reform within the Republican party yet those in authority, made reckless by the long possession of power, have succumbed to its corrupting influence, and have placed in nomination a ticket against which the independent portion of the party are in open revolt.

Therefore a change is demanded. Such a change was alike necessary in 1876, but the will of the people was then defeated by a fraud which can never be forgotten, nor condoned. Again, in 1880, the change demanded by the people was defeated by the lavish use of money contributed by unscrupulous contractors and shameless jobbers who had bargained for unlawful profits, or for high office.

The Republican party during its legal, its stolen, and its bought tenure of power, has steadily decayed in moral character and political capacity.

Its platform promises are now a list of its past failures.

It demands the restoration of our Navy. It has squandered hundreds of millions to create a navy that does not exist.

It calls upon Congress to remove the burdens under which American shipping has been depressed. It imposed and has continued those burdens.

It professes a policy of reserving the public lands for small holdings by actual settlers. It has given away the people's heritage till now a few railroads, and non-resident aliens, individual and corporate, possess a larger area than that of all our farms between the two seas.

It professes a preference for free institutions. It organized and tried to legalize a control of State elections by Federal troops.

It professes a desire to elevate labor. It has subjected American workingmen to the competition of convict and imported contract labor.

It professes gratitude to all who were disabled, or died in the war, leaving widows and orphans. It left to a Democratic House of Representatives the first effort to equalize both bounties and pensions.

It proffers a pledge to correct the irregularities of our tariff. It created and has continued them. Its own Tariff Commission confessed the need of more than twenty per cent reduction. Its Congress gave a reduction of less than four per cent.

It professes the protection of American manufactures. It has subjected them to an increasing flood of manufactured goods, and a hopeless competition with manufacturing nations, not one of which taxes raw materials.

It professes to protect all American industries. It has impoverished many to subsidize a few.

It professes the protection of American labor. It has depleted the returns of American agricultureian industry followed by half of our people. It professes the equality of all men before the law. Attempting to fix the status of colored citizens, the acts of its Congress were overset by the decision of its Courts.

It "accepts anew the duty of leading in the work of progress and reform." Its caught criminals are permitted to escape through contrived delays or actual connivance in the prosecution. Honeycombed with corruption, outbreaking exposures no longer shock its moral sense. Its honest members, its independent journals, no longer maintain a successful contest for authority in its councils or a veto upon bad nominations.

That change is necessary is proved by an existing surplus of more than $10(),00(),000, which has yearly been collected from a suffering people. Unnecessary taxation is unjust taxation. We denounce the Republican party for having failed to relieve the people from crushing war taxes which have paralyzed business, crippled industry, and deprived labor of employment and of just reward.

The Democracy pledges itself to purify the Administration from corruption to restore economy, to revive respeet for law, and to reduce taxation to the lowest limit consistent with due regard to the preservation of the faith of the Nation to its creditors and pensioners.

Knowing full well, however, that legislation affecting the operations of the people should be cautious and conservative in method, not in advance of public opinion, but responsive to its demands, the Democratic party is pledged to revise the tariff in a spirit of fairness to all interests.

But in making reduction in taxes, it is not proposed to injure any domestic industries, but rather to promote their healthy growth. From the foundation of this Government, taxes collected at the Custom House have been the chief source of Federal Revenue. Such they must continue to be. Moreover, many industries have come to rely upon legislation for successful continuance, so that any change of law must be at every step regardful of the labor and capital thus involved. The process of reform must be subject in the execution to this plain dictate of justice.

All taxation shall be limited to the requirements of economical government. The necessary reduction and taxation can and must be effected without depriving American labor of the ability to compete successfully with foreign labor, and without imposing lower rates of duty than will be ample to cover any increased cost of production which may exist in consequence of the higher rate of wages prevailing in this country.

Sufficient revenue to pay all the expenses of the Federal Government, economically administered, including pensions, interest, and principal on the public debt, can be got, under our present system of taxation, from the custom house taxes on fewer imported articles, bearing heaviest on articles of luxury, and bearing lightest on articles of necessity.

We, therefore, denounce the abuses of the existing tariff and, subject to the preceding limitations, we demand that Federal taxation shall be exclusively for public purposes and shall not exceed the needs of the Government economically administered.

The system of direct taxation known as the "Internal Revenue," is a war tax, and so long as the law continues, the money derived therefrom should be sacredly devoted to the relief of the people from the remaining burdens of the war, and be made a fund to defray the expenses of the care and comfort of worthy soldiers disabled in line of duty in the wars of the Republic and for the payment of such pensions as Congress may from time to time grant to such soldiers, a like fund for the sailors having been already provided and any surplus should be paid into the Treasury.

We favor an American continental policy based upon more intimate commercial and political relations with the fifteen sister Republics of North, Central, and South America, but entangling alliances with none.

We believe in honest money, the gold and silver coinage of the Constitution, and a circulating medium convertible into such money without loss.

Assrlting the equality of all men before the law, we hold that it is the duty of the Government, in its dealings with the people, to mete out equal and exact justice to all citizens of whatever nativity, race, color, or persuasion—religious or political.

We believe in a free ballot and a fair count and we recall to the memory of the people the noble struggle of the Democrats in the Forty-fifth and Forty-sixth Congresses, by which a reluctant Republican opposition was compelled to assent to legislation making everywhere illegal the presence of troops at the polls, as the conclusive proof that a Democratic administration will preserve liberty with order.

The selection of Federal officers for the Territories should be restricted to citizens previously resident therein.

We oppose sumptuary laws which vex the citizen and interfere with individual liberty we favor honest Civil Service Reform, and the compensation of all United States officers by fixed salaries the separation of Church and State and the diffusion of free education by common schools, so that every child in the land may be taught the rights and duties of citizenship.

While we favor all legislation which will tend to the equitable distribution of property, to the prevention of monopoly, and to the strict enforcement of individual rights against corporate abuses, we hold that the welfare of society depends upon a scrupulous regard for the rights of property as defined by law.

We believe that labor is best rewarded where it is freest and most enlightened. It should therefore be fostered and cherished. We favor the repeal of all laws restricting the free action of labor, and the enactment of laws by which labor organizations may be incorporated, and of all such legislation as will tend to enlighten the people as to the true relations of capital and labor.

We believe that the public lands ought, as far as possible, to be kept as homesteads for actual settlers that all unearned lands heretofore improvidently granted to railroad corporations by the action of the Republican party should be restored to the public domain and that no more grants of land shall be made to corporations, or be allowed to fall into the ownership of alien absentees.

We are opposed to all propositions which upon any pretext would convert the General Government into a machine for collecting taxes to be distributed among the States, or the citizens thereof.

In reaffirming the declaration of the Democratic platform of 1856, that, "the liberal principles embodied by Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence, and sanctioned in the Constitution, which make ours the land of liberty and the asylum of the oppressed of every Nation, have ever been cardinal principles in the Democratic faith," we nevertheless do not sanction the importation of foreign labor, or the admission of servile races, unfitted by habits, training, religion, or kindred, for absorption into the great body of our people, or for the citizenship which our laws confer. American civilization demands that against the immigration or importation of Mongolians to these shores our gates be closed.

The Democratic party insists that it is the duty of the Government to protect, with equal fidelity and vigilance, the rights of its citizens, native and naturalized, at home and abroad, and to the end that this protection may be assured, United States papers of naturalization, issued by courts of competent jurisdiction, must be respected by the Executive and Legislative departments of our own Government, and by all foreign powers.

It is an imperative duty of this Government to efficiently protect all the rights of persons and property of every American citizen in foreign lands, and demand and enforce full reparation for any invasion thereof.

An American citizen is only responsible to his own Government for any act done in his own country, or under her flag, and can only be tried therefor on her own soil and according to her laws and no power exists in this Government to expatriate an American citizen to be tried in any foreign land for any such act.

This country has never had a well-defined and executed foreign policy save under Democratic administration that policy has ever been, in regard to foreign nations, so long as they do not act detrimental to the interests of the country or hurtful to our citizens, to let them alone that as a result of this policy we call the acquisition of Louisiana, Florida, California, and of the adjacent Mexican territory by purchase alone, and contrast these grand acquisitions of Democratic statesmanship with the purchase of Alaska, the sole fruit of a Republican administration of nearly a quarter of a century.

The Federal Government should care for and improve the Mississippi River and other great waterways of the Republic, so as to secure for the interior States easy and cheap transportation to tide water.

Under a long period of Democratic rule and policy, our merchant marine was fast overtaking and on the point of outstripping that of Great Britain. Under twenty years of Republican rule and policy, our commerce has been left to British bottoms, and almost has the American flag been swept off the high seas.

Instead of the Republican party's British policy, we demand for the people of the United States an American policy.

Under Democratic rule and policy our merchants and sailors, flying the stars and stripes in every port, successfully searched out a market for the varied products of American industry.

Under a quarter of a century of Republican rule and policy, despite our manifest advantage of all other nations in high-paid labor, favorable climate and teeming soils despite freedom of trade among all these United States despite their population by the foremost races of men and an annual immigration of the young, thrifty and adventurous of all nations despite our freedom here from the inherited burdens of life and industry in the old-world monarchies, their costly war navies, their vast tax-consuming, non-producing standing armies despite twenty years of peace, that Republican rule and policy have managed to surrender to Great Britain, along with our commerce, the control of the markets of the world.

Instead of the Republican party's British policy, we demand on behalf of the American Democracy, an American policy.

Instead of the Republican party's discredited scheme and false pretense of friendship for American labor, expressed by imposing taxes, we demand in behalf of the Democracy, freedom for American labor by reducing taxes, to the end that these United States may compete with unhindered powers for the primacy among nations in all the arts of peace and fruits of liberty.

With profound regret we have been apprised by the venerable statesman through whose person was struck that blow at the vital principle of republics (acquiescence in the will of the majority), that he cannot permit us again to place in his hands the leadership of the Democratic hosts, for the reason that the achievement of reform in the administration of the Federal Government is an undertaking now too heavy for his age and failing strength.

Rejoicing that his life has been prolonged until the general judgment of our fellow-countrymen is united in the wish that that wrong were righted in his person, for the Democracy of the United States we offer to him in his withdrawal from public cares not only our respectful sympathy and esteem, but also that best homage of freemen, the pledge of our devotion to the principles and the cause now inseparable in the history of this Republic from the labors and the name of Samuel J. Tilden.

With this statement of the hopes, principles and purposes of the Democratic party, the great issue of Reform and change in Administration is submitted to the people in calm confidence that the popular voice will pronounce in favor of new men, and new and more favorable conditions for the growth of industry, the extension of trade, the employment and the due reward of labor and of capital, and the general welfare of the whole country.

APP Note: The American Presidency Project used the first day of the national nominating convention as the "date" of this platform since the original document is undated.


1884 Democrat Convention | Lurker's Alternate Elections

See Benjamin H. Bristow's second term here.

Try to vote without hindsight

Grover Cleveland: Grover Cleveland is famous for his steadfast fight against corruption while he was the Governor of New York. He is known to be economically conservative, as he opposes tariffs and supports the gold standard. He has also spoken out in opposition to imperialism and him not leaving the Democratic Party to join the Liberals indicates a certain level of social conservativism as well.

Thomas Francis Bayard: 56 year old Senator Thomas F. Bayard of Delaware entered the Senate at the young age of 40. He opposes Reconstruction, Civil Rights for black people, and Chinese Immigration but also supported the Gold Standard. Due to his many views opposing current president Benjamin Bristow's views, he has clashed with Bristow a number of times. However, Bayard is known to have spoken in favor of secession in 1856, making him disliked in the north.

Thomas Andrews Hendricks: Thomas A. Hendricks is the former Governor of Indiana, and before, was a Senator from Indiana. During the Civil War, he stayed loyal to the Union, despite him supporting slavery. He supported the suspension of Habeus Corpus, but opposed the military draft and Greenbacks. Once slavery was outlawed, Hendricks opposed black rights every chance he got. As governor, he is known for using the state militia to break up worker's strikes, passing laws against the consumption of alcohol, and building a new Indiana Statehouse.

Samuel Jackson Randall: Samuel J. Randall is a Representative from Pennsylvania. He started his career in politics during the Civil War, when he supported the Union's war effort. After the war, he opposed civil rights. However, he only became famous when he lead a 16 hour filibuster to try to stop the Wade-Davis Bill from passing. Randall supports both the gold standard and the Greenback, and wants the government to start selling bonds directly to the public, instead of large banks. Randall also supports high tariffs, which might be unpalatable to the wider Democratic Party.

Allen Granberry Thurman: Allen G. Thurman was a Senator from Ohio. He is known to hate black people so much, that he wanted them gone from the territory gained in the Mexican-American War, and voted in favor of the Wilmot Proviso. During the civil war, he opposed secession, but also opposed the civil war and emancipation. He now opposes black rights. He is also known for supporting internal improvements. Allen G. Thurman is also 71 years old, so his opponents attack him by raising questions about his health.

No one: After the Democrats lost seats in Congress in 1882, there is also a movement to support the Liberal Party's candidate for the presidency, if the Liberal Party chooses someone appropriate.

Thomas Andrews Hendricks: See above

John Charles Black: John Charles Black was a notable general in the Civil War. Right now, he is in large ways an average Democrat. Black opposes high tariffs, opposes civil rights, and his stance on the gold standard isn't clear.

Joseph Ewing McDonald: Joseph Ewing McDonald was a Representative from Indiana. He is also, like Black, an average Democrat on most things. However, he is the only candidate here to support women's suffrage.


Albany Celebrated Grover Cleveland’s 1884 Nomination for President

After the 1884 Democratic National Convention closed at Chicago, the nation’s attention turned to Albany, where nominee-in-waiting Grover Cleveland was doing his best not to make news prematurely.

“Gov. Cleveland spent another quiet day. In point of national interest, it was as quiet at the Sabbath,” according to a July 15th news report from Albany, one of several published over a two-week span in the The Morning Star of Glens Falls.

The roll out of a presidential campaign was different in that era.

The party adopted the platform and nominated a candidate at the convention, and then party leaders would travel some days later to formally notify the candidate.

The candidate could then immediately accept the nomination, in writing, or wait a few days, sometimes opting to accept the nomination in front of a large crowd.

For reporters covering a campaign, it was kind of like the old Army saying: “Hurry up and wait.”

Cleveland, the New York governor, was at his office early in the morning, as usual, on July 15th.

His day would be fairly routine, except for an uptick in callers and an afternoon photo shoot with three separate poses.

“His nomination has not changed him a jet. People of all degrees drop into the executive chamber with the same freedom as before, and are received with the same characteristic good humor and hearty welcome.”

A “local journalist” was starting work on a campaign biography.

By July 28th, the influx of callers was increased.

“The governor finds the work of receiving visitors and answering campaign letters encroaches on his time to such an extent that it is often long after midnight before he finishes the regular routine work of his office.”

The next day, the political atmosphere in Albany was percolating, leading up the notification ceremony on July 30th.

“The hotels are filled with politicians. Most of the members of the national committee have arrived.”

Cleveland denied that a draft of his acceptance letter, subject to revision, had been provided to several prominent Democratic leaders.

“According to some newspapers, the letter is written, but I say it is not,” Cleveland said. “It will be time enough to write it after I have been officially announced for my nomination. No, I have not committed my thoughts to paper yet.”

July 30th was “a great day for Albany” despite rain storms.

“Never before were there seen so many distinguished Democratic politicians in this city.”

At 3:30 pm the Albany Phalanx, apparently a quasi-military group, and a brass band marched to the hotel where party leaders were staying.

“They heeded neither wind, rain, nor muddy streets. Their white plug hats, the symbol of the club, were unprotected by umbrellas.”

The procession continued to the Executive Mansion, with Democratic leaders riding in carriages.

It was a simple ceremony that began when Cleveland came into the room at 4 pm.

“He was dressed as usual, in black frock coat, with high, standing white collar broad, black necktie. … No preliminary fuss was made.”

Cleveland’s brief remarks resonate today.

“The election of a president is an event of the utmost importance to the people of America. Prosperity, growth, happiness, peace and liberty even, may depend on its wise ordering.”

Cleveland said he was still grasping the significance of the nomination.

“Though I greatly appreciate it, I do not at this moment congratulate myself for the distinguished honor conferred upon me, because my mind is full of an anxious desire to perform well the part which has been assigned to me.”

That said, the ceremony was over.

“There was a season of handshaking at the close of the governor’s speech. Then the sliding doors were thrown open, revealing a well-spread table in the back parlor. A hearty welcome was given to all to refresh themselves.”

By 5:30 pm, participants had all left for a reception at the Fort Orange Club, and Cleveland was left at the mansion, alone, to contemplate the campaign ahead.

On July 31st, the day after the ceremony, Cleveland met, for the first time ever, his running mate.

Vice presidential candidate Thomas A. Hendricks, governor of Indiana, had been waiting for several days at Saratoga Springs until Cleveland was formally notified of his nomination.


Xxiii

This motion was adopted the announcement of the appointments on this Committee was postponed.

Mr. Dawson, of South Carolina, offered the following resolution:

Resolved, That the National Democratic Committee do hereby recommend the National Democratic Convention to authorize and empower the National Democratic Committee to elect a Chairman for that Committee from outside of such Committee, if such Committee shall consider it advantageous to do so.

Mr. Smalley, of Vermont, moved to lay the resolution on the table.

This motion was lost by a rising vote: 20 nays to 14 yeas.

Mr. Goudy, of Illinois, moved that the consideration of the resolution, offered by Mr. Dawson, be indefinitely postponed.

This motion was adopted on a rising vote: 17 ayes to 15 noes.

Mr. Ham, of Iowa, moved that the headquarters of the National Democratic Committee in July, 1884, be fixed at the Palmer House, Chicago.

Mr. Ransom moved to amend by referring the matter to the Committee of Arrangements when appointed.

This amendment was adopted, and the resolution as amended was adopted.

Mr. McHenry, of Kentucky, moved that when the Committee adjourn it do so to meet on Monday, July 7th, 1884, at twelve o'clock noon, at the Palmer House, in the City of Chicago, Illinois.

Mr. Armstrong, of Ohio, offered the following resolution:

Resolved, That the National Democratic Committee return their thanks to Hon. William H. Barnum, Chairman, and Hon. Frederick O. Prince, Secretary, for their able and valuable services in the conduct of the campaign of 1880.

This resolution was adopted.

Mr. Dawson, of South Carolina, offered the following resolution and moved that it be referred to the Executive Committee:

Resolved, That at the meeting of the National Democratic Convention, now ordered to be held, no person shall be allowed on the floor of the Convention, during its sessions, except the duly appointed Delegates to the Convention, the Officers of the Convention and the Members and Officers of this Committee, subject

The resolution, and motion to refer, was lost.

On motion of Mr. Brown, of Indiana, the Committee adjourned to meet on Monday, July 7th, 1884, at the Palmer House, Chicago, at twelve o'clock noon of that day.


1884 Democratic Platform

The Democratic party of the Union, through its representatives in National Convention assembled, recognizes that, as the nation grows older, new issues are born of time and progress, and old issues perish. But the fundamental principles of the Democracy, approved by the united voice of the people, remain, and will ever remain, as the best and only security for the continuance of free government The preservation of personal rights the equality of all citizens before the law the reserved rights of the States and the supremacy of the Federal Government within the limits of the Constitution, will ever form the true basis of our liberties, and can never be surrendered without destroying that balance of rights and powers which enables a continent to be developed in peace, and social order to be maintained by means of local self-government.

But it is indispensable for the practical application and enforcement of these fundamental principles, that the Government should not always be controlled by one political party. Frequent change of administration is as necessary as constant recurrence to the popular will. Otherwise abuses grow, and the Government, instead of being carried on for the general welfare, becomes an instrumentality for imposing heavy burdens on the many who are governed, for the benefit of the few who govern. Public servants thus become arbitrary rulers.

This is now the condition of the country. Hence a change is demanded. The Republican party, so far as principle is concerned, is a reminiscence in practice, it is an organization for enriching those who control its machinery. The frauds and jobbery which have been brought to light in every department of the Government, are sufficient to have called for reform within the Republican party yet those in authority, made reckless by the long possession of power, have succumbed to its corrupting influence, and have placed in nomination a ticket against which the independent portion of the party are in open revolt.

Therefore a change is demanded. Such a change was alike necessary in 1876, but the will of the people was then defeated by a fraud which can never be forgotten, nor condoned. Again, in 1880, the change demanded by the people was defeated by the lavish use of money contributed by unscrupulous contractors and shameless jobbers who had bargained for unlawful profits, or for high office.

The Republican party during its legal, its stolen, and its bought tenure of power, has steadily decayed in moral character and political capacity.

Its platform promises are now a list of its past failures.

It demands the restoration of our Navy. It has squandered hundreds of millions to create a navy that does not exist.

It calls upon Congress to remove the burdens under which American shipping has been depressed. It imposed and has continued those burdens.

It professes a policy of reserving the public lands for small holdings by actual settlers. It has given away the people's heritage till now a few railroads, and non-resident aliens, individual and corporate, possess a larger area than that of all our farms between the two seas.

It professes a preference for free institutions. It organized and tried to legalize a control of State elections by Federal troops.

It professes a desire to elevate labor. It has subjected American workingmen to the competition of convict and imported contract labor.

It professes gratitude to all who were disabled, or died in the war, leaving widows and orphans. It left to a Democratic House of Representatives the first effort to equalize both bounties and pensions.

It proffers a pledge to correct the irregularities of our tariff. It created and has continued them. Its own Tariff Commission confessed the need of more than twenty per cent reduction. Its Congress gave a reduction of less than four per cent.

It professes the protection of American manufactures. It has subjected them to an increasing flood of manufactured goods, and a hopeless competition with manufacturing nations, not one of which taxes raw materials.

It professes to protect all American industries. It has impoverished many to subsidize a few.

It professes the protection of American labor. It has depleted the returns of American agricultureian industry followed by half of our people. It professes the equality of all men before the law. Attempting to fix the status of colored citizens, the acts of its Congress were overset by the decision of its Courts.

It "accepts anew the duty of leading in the work of progress and reform." Its caught criminals are permitted to escape through contrived delays or actual connivance in the prosecution. Honeycombed with corruption, outbreaking exposures no longer shock its moral sense. Its honest members, its independent journals, no longer maintain a successful contest for authority in its councils or a veto upon bad nominations.

That change is necessary is proved by an existing surplus of more than $10(),00(),000, which has yearly been collected from a suffering people. Unnecessary taxation is unjust taxation. We denounce the Republican party for having failed to relieve the people from crushing war taxes which have paralyzed business, crippled industry, and deprived labor of employment and of just reward.

The Democracy pledges itself to purify the Administration from corruption to restore economy, to revive respeet for law, and to reduce taxation to the lowest limit consistent with due regard to the preservation of the faith of the Nation to its creditors and pensioners.

Knowing full well, however, that legislation affecting the operations of the people should be cautious and conservative in method, not in advance of public opinion, but responsive to its demands, the Democratic party is pledged to revise the tariff in a spirit of fairness to all interests.

But in making reduction in taxes, it is not proposed to injure any domestic industries, but rather to promote their healthy growth. From the foundation of this Government, taxes collected at the Custom House have been the chief source of Federal Revenue. Such they must continue to be. Moreover, many industries have come to rely upon legislation for successful continuance, so that any change of law must be at every step regardful of the labor and capital thus involved. The process of reform must be subject in the execution to this plain dictate of justice.

All taxation shall be limited to the requirements of economical government. The necessary reduction and taxation can and must be effected without depriving American labor of the ability to compete successfully with foreign labor, and without imposing lower rates of duty than will be ample to cover any increased cost of production which may exist in consequence of the higher rate of wages prevailing in this country.

Sufficient revenue to pay all the expenses of the Federal Government, economically administered, including pensions, interest, and principal on the public debt, can be got, under our present system of taxation, from the custom house taxes on fewer imported articles, bearing heaviest on articles of luxury, and bearing lightest on articles of necessity.

We, therefore, denounce the abuses of the existing tariff and, subject to the preceding limitations, we demand that Federal taxation shall be exclusively for public purposes and shall not exceed the needs of the Government economically administered.

The system of direct taxation known as the "Internal Revenue," is a war tax, and so long as the law continues, the money derived therefrom should be sacredly devoted to the relief of the people from the remaining burdens of the war, and be made a fund to defray the expenses of the care and comfort of worthy soldiers disabled in line of duty in the wars of the Republic and for the payment of such pensions as Congress may from time to time grant to such soldiers, a like fund for the sailors having been already provided and any surplus should be paid into the Treasury.

We favor an American continental policy based upon more intimate commercial and political relations with the fifteen sister Republics of North, Central, and South America, but entangling alliances with none.

We believe in honest money, the gold and silver coinage of the Constitution, and a circulating medium convertible into such money without loss.

Assrlting the equality of all men before the law, we hold that it is the duty of the Government, in its dealings with the people, to mete out equal and exact justice to all citizens of whatever nativity, race, color, or persuasion—religious or political.

We believe in a free ballot and a fair count and we recall to the memory of the people the noble struggle of the Democrats in the Forty-fifth and Forty-sixth Congresses, by which a reluctant Republican opposition was compelled to assent to legislation making everywhere illegal the presence of troops at the polls, as the conclusive proof that a Democratic administration will preserve liberty with order.

The selection of Federal officers for the Territories should be restricted to citizens previously resident therein.

We oppose sumptuary laws which vex the citizen and interfere with individual liberty we favor honest Civil Service Reform, and the compensation of all United States officers by fixed salaries the separation of Church and State and the diffusion of free education by common schools, so that every child in the land may be taught the rights and duties of citizenship.

While we favor all legislation which will tend to the equitable distribution of property, to the prevention of monopoly, and to the strict enforcement of individual rights against corporate abuses, we hold that the welfare of society depends upon a scrupulous regard for the rights of property as defined by law.

We believe that labor is best rewarded where it is freest and most enlightened. It should therefore be fostered and cherished. We favor the repeal of all laws restricting the free action of labor, and the enactment of laws by which labor organizations may be incorporated, and of all such legislation as will tend to enlighten the people as to the true relations of capital and labor.

We believe that the public lands ought, as far as possible, to be kept as homesteads for actual settlers that all unearned lands heretofore improvidently granted to railroad corporations by the action of the Republican party should be restored to the public domain and that no more grants of land shall be made to corporations, or be allowed to fall into the ownership of alien absentees.

We are opposed to all propositions which upon any pretext would convert the General Government into a machine for collecting taxes to be distributed among the States, or the citizens thereof.

In reaffirming the declaration of the Democratic platform of 1856, that, "the liberal principles embodied by Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence, and sanctioned in the Constitution, which make ours the land of liberty and the asylum of the oppressed of every Nation, have ever been cardinal principles in the Democratic faith," we nevertheless do not sanction the importation of foreign labor, or the admission of servile races, unfitted by habits, training, religion, or kindred, for absorption into the great body of our people, or for the citizenship which our laws confer. American civilization demands that against the immigration or importation of Mongolians to these shores our gates be closed.

The Democratic party insists that it is the duty of the Government to protect, with equal fidelity and vigilance, the rights of its citizens, native and naturalized, at home and abroad, and to the end that this protection may be assured, United States papers of naturalization, issued by courts of competent jurisdiction, must be respected by the Executive and Legislative departments of our own Government, and by all foreign powers.

It is an imperative duty of this Government to efficiently protect all the rights of persons and property of every American citizen in foreign lands, and demand and enforce full reparation for any invasion thereof.

An American citizen is only responsible to his own Government for any act done in his own country, or under her flag, and can only be tried therefor on her own soil and according to her laws and no power exists in this Government to expatriate an American citizen to be tried in any foreign land for any such act.

This country has never had a well-defined and executed foreign policy save under Democratic administration that policy has ever been, in regard to foreign nations, so long as they do not act detrimental to the interests of the country or hurtful to our citizens, to let them alone that as a result of this policy we call the acquisition of Louisiana, Florida, California, and of the adjacent Mexican territory by purchase alone, and contrast these grand acquisitions of Democratic statesmanship with the purchase of Alaska, the sole fruit of a Republican administration of nearly a quarter of a century.

The Federal Government should care for and improve the Mississippi River and other great waterways of the Republic, so as to secure for the interior States easy and cheap transportation to tide water.

Under a long period of Democratic rule and policy, our merchant marine was fast overtaking and on the point of outstripping that of Great Britain. Under twenty years of Republican rule and policy, our commerce has been left to British bottoms, and almost has the American flag been swept off the high seas.

Instead of the Republican party's British policy, we demand for the people of the United States an American policy.

Under Democratic rule and policy our merchants and sailors, flying the stars and stripes in every port, successfully searched out a market for the varied products of American industry.

Under a quarter of a century of Republican rule and policy, despite our manifest advantage of all other nations in high-paid labor, favorable climate and teeming soils despite freedom of trade among all these United States despite their population by the foremost races of men and an annual immigration of the young, thrifty and adventurous of all nations despite our freedom here from the inherited burdens of life and industry in the old-world monarchies, their costly war navies, their vast tax-consuming, non-producing standing armies despite twenty years of peace, that Republican rule and policy have managed to surrender to Great Britain, along with our commerce, the control of the markets of the world.

Instead of the Republican party's British policy, we demand on behalf of the American Democracy, an American policy.

Instead of the Republican party's discredited scheme and false pretense of friendship for American labor, expressed by imposing taxes, we demand in behalf of the Democracy, freedom for American labor by reducing taxes, to the end that these United States may compete with unhindered powers for the primacy among nations in all the arts of peace and fruits of liberty.

With profound regret we have been apprised by the venerable statesman through whose person was struck that blow at the vital principle of republics (acquiescence in the will of the majority), that he cannot permit us again to place in his hands the leadership of the Democratic hosts, for the reason that the achievement of reform in the administration of the Federal Government is an undertaking now too heavy for his age and failing strength.

Rejoicing that his life has been prolonged until the general judgment of our fellow-countrymen is united in the wish that that wrong were righted in his person, for the Democracy of the United States we offer to him in his withdrawal from public cares not only our respectful sympathy and esteem, but also that best homage of freemen, the pledge of our devotion to the principles and the cause now inseparable in the history of this Republic from the labors and the name of Samuel J. Tilden.

With this statement of the hopes, principles and purposes of the Democratic party, the great issue of Reform and change in Administration is submitted to the people in calm confidence that the popular voice will pronounce in favor of new men, and new and more favorable conditions for the growth of industry, the extension of trade, the employment and the due reward of labor and of capital, and the general welfare of the whole country.


Мы не просто торговая площадка для необычных вещей, мы сообщество людей, которые заботятся о малом бизнесе, людях и нашей планете.

Мы не просто торговая площадка для необычных вещей, мы сообщество людей, которые заботятся о малом бизнесе, людях и нашей планете.

Материалы: Cardboard, Paper, Matting, Mat, Bevel Mat, Mount

Read the full description

This is an antique color print (chromolithograph) from PUCK, a weekly magazine published in 1884. Puck was the first successful humor magazine in the United States consisting of political satire expressed in colorful cartoons and caricatures which focused on the the major, mostly political, issues of the day. It was published from 1871 until 1918. Puck was quite popular in its day, and very popular among political cartoon collectors today. This series of PUCK cartoons are clever, beautifully illustrated and provide an historical picture of the state of politics in 1884. This print is about 135 years old and guaranteed to be original from that year and the original PUCK publication. (CLICK ON ICON BELOW TO UNCOVER ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THIS PRINT.)

TITLE: WITH PUCK'S COMPLIMENT TO THE DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL CONVENTION AT CHICAGO - 1884 ( See pictures for smaller text)

ARTIST: GRAETZ, SIGNED IN PLATE

CONDITION: EXCELLENT - This print is clear, clean, and bright. It has is no foxing, creasing or folds. Excellent definition. Nice clean, sharp lines.

The area inside the matte is 9" x 12 1/2" (including white space surrounding the image). Matted the print measures 12" x 16". This is a standard size matte that will fit into a standard size frame—no costly custom frames required.

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1884 Democratic Convention

Here’s some candidate descriptions (None for McDonald though). Again, all credit is to u/Peacock-Shah.

Governor Grover Cleveland

47 year old Governor Grover Cleveland of New York is an anti corruption rising star. An ardent fiscal conservative & reformer, he has gained national recognition for his crusade against corruption, bossism, & the spoils system in New York as well as his feud with the corrupt political machine of Tammany Hall, driving many in Tammany to support Bayard.

Note: All candidates favor anti corruption reforms, Governor Cleveland is simply famous for his anti corruption crusades.

Senator Thomas F. Bayard

Cleveland’s primary rival for the nomination, 56 year old Senator Thomas F. Bayard of Delaware entered the senate at 40 & quickly became among the nation’s premiere voices of conservatism. He has become popular in the south due to his opposition to Reconstruction, & the Civil Rights Act of 1875, & he is popular with Northern financial interests due to his strong advocacy for a gold standard.

Bayard clashed with President Hayes due to Bayard’s opposition to Chinese immigration, & the Enforcement Acts which protect African Americans in the south, with Bayard & the Democrats winning, ending the last vestiges of protection for Southern African Americans. Bayard has supported the Civil Service reform effort as well efforts to maintain a large budget surplus.

Bayard’s nomination chances are greatly hurt by a speech he made in 1861 advocating for Delaware’s secession.

Former Senator Allen G. Thurman

71 year old former Ohio Senator Allen G. Thurman first gained attention for opposing the expansion of slavery following the Mexican American War-because he hated black people so much that he felt only white people should inhabit the gained territory. While he felt the states could not legally secede, he also felt that fighting them was not the right idea & strongly opposed President Lincoln’s policies, especially emancipation.

Thurman proceeded to unsuccessfully run for Governor of Ohio against former President Rutherford Hayes on a platform opposing African American suffrage. He was elected to the senate in 1873 & is known as a skilled speaker & legislator. He also has long supported internal improvements & infrastructure projects.

Representative Samuel J. Randall

56 year old former Speaker of the House Samuel J. Randall began his career as a War Democrat & stood with other candidates such as Thomas Hendricks against the 13th, 14th, & 15th Amendments. Randall first became famous for helped lead a 16 hour filibuster opposing a bill forcing former Confederates to renounce the confederacy prior to holding office, & for delaying a military reconstruction bill for 2 weeks.

While Randall supports the gold standard, he is accepting of greenbacks & supports authorizing silver dollars & bimetallism. Randall is quite unpopular due to his support of high tariffs, something no other candidate shares, & his opposition to subsidies for railroads.

Former Governor Thomas A. Hendricks

65 year old Former Senator from & former Governor of Indiana Thomas Hendricks began his career as a noted anti greenback advocate, & an opponent of the 13th, 14th, & 15th Amendments. Hendricks gained notoriety as Governor by using the state militia to break up workers strikes during the economic panic & for passing early Temperance laws. He served as Samuel Tilden’s running mate in 1876 & has support from his home state of Indiana.


1884 Democratic Convention - History

Twenty-second President, 1885-1889
Twenty-fourth President, 1893-1897

Grover Cleveland was the only president to be elected to two non-consecutive terms. A staunch political and social conservative, Grover Cleveland was known for his integrity and reformist activities. When he was elected governor of New York in 1882, he went after the corrupt Democratic political machine of Tammany Hall, courageously defying the "Bosses" who controlled the party. Nominated on the second ballot at the 1884 Democratic convention, Cleveland won election by the smallest popular margin in American history.

The first Democratic president since the Civil War, Cleveland appointed Southerners to a number of posts. For the most part, he believed in a "hands off" presidency, avoiding involvement in proposed legislation, but quickly rejecting congressional actions he disapproved of. In fact, Cleveland vetoed more legislation than any president before him, gaining him the nickname "Old Veto." During his first term in office, Cleveland married 21-year old Francis Folsom. Twenty-eight years his junior, the young and beautiful First Lady became very popular with the public.


1884 Democratic Platform

The Democratic party of the Union, through its representatives in National Convention assembled, recognizes that, as the nation grows older, new issues are born of time and progress, and old issues perish. But the fundamental principles of the Democracy, approved by the united voice of the people, remain, and will ever remain, as the best and only security for the continuance of free government The preservation of personal rights the equality of all citizens before the law the reserved rights of the States and the supremacy of the Federal Government within the limits of the Constitution, will ever form the true basis of our liberties, and can never be surrendered without destroying that balance of rights and powers which enables a continent to be developed in peace, and social order to be maintained by means of local self-government.

But it is indispensable for the practical application and enforcement of these fundamental principles, that the Government should not always be controlled by one political party. Frequent change of administration is as necessary as constant recurrence to the popular will. Otherwise abuses grow, and the Government, instead of being carried on for the general welfare, becomes an instrumentality for imposing heavy burdens on the many who are governed, for the benefit of the few who govern. Public servants thus become arbitrary rulers.

This is now the condition of the country. Hence a change is demanded. The Republican party, so far as principle is concerned, is a reminiscence in practice, it is an organization for enriching those who control its machinery. The frauds and jobbery which have been brought to light in every department of the Government, are sufficient to have called for reform within the Republican party yet those in authority, made reckless by the long possession of power, have succumbed to its corrupting influence, and have placed in nomination a ticket against which the independent portion of the party are in open revolt.

Therefore a change is demanded. Such a change was alike necessary in 1876, but the will of the people was then defeated by a fraud which can never be forgotten, nor condoned. Again, in 1880, the change demanded by the people was defeated by the lavish use of money contributed by unscrupulous contractors and shameless jobbers who had bargained for unlawful profits, or for high office.

The Republican party during its legal, its stolen, and its bought tenure of power, has steadily decayed in moral character and political capacity.

Its platform promises are now a list of its past failures.

It demands the restoration of our Navy. It has squandered hundreds of millions to create a navy that does not exist.

It calls upon Congress to remove the burdens under which American shipping has been depressed. It imposed and has continued those burdens.

It professes a policy of reserving the public lands for small holdings by actual settlers. It has given away the people's heritage till now a few railroads, and non-resident aliens, individual and corporate, possess a larger area than that of all our farms between the two seas.

It professes a preference for free institutions. It organized and tried to legalize a control of State elections by Federal troops.

It professes a desire to elevate labor. It has subjected American workingmen to the competition of convict and imported contract labor.

It professes gratitude to all who were disabled, or died in the war, leaving widows and orphans. It left to a Democratic House of Representatives the first effort to equalize both bounties and pensions.

It proffers a pledge to correct the irregularities of our tariff. It created and has continued them. Its own Tariff Commission confessed the need of more than twenty per cent reduction. Its Congress gave a reduction of less than four per cent.

It professes the protection of American manufactures. It has subjected them to an increasing flood of manufactured goods, and a hopeless competition with manufacturing nations, not one of which taxes raw materials.

It professes to protect all American industries. It has impoverished many to subsidize a few.

It professes the protection of American labor. It has depleted the returns of American agricultureian industry followed by half of our people. It professes the equality of all men before the law. Attempting to fix the status of colored citizens, the acts of its Congress were overset by the decision of its Courts.

It "accepts anew the duty of leading in the work of progress and reform." Its caught criminals are permitted to escape through contrived delays or actual connivance in the prosecution. Honeycombed with corruption, outbreaking exposures no longer shock its moral sense. Its honest members, its independent journals, no longer maintain a successful contest for authority in its councils or a veto upon bad nominations.

That change is necessary is proved by an existing surplus of more than $10(),00(),000, which has yearly been collected from a suffering people. Unnecessary taxation is unjust taxation. We denounce the Republican party for having failed to relieve the people from crushing war taxes which have paralyzed business, crippled industry, and deprived labor of employment and of just reward.

The Democracy pledges itself to purify the Administration from corruption to restore economy, to revive respeet for law, and to reduce taxation to the lowest limit consistent with due regard to the preservation of the faith of the Nation to its creditors and pensioners.

Knowing full well, however, that legislation affecting the operations of the people should be cautious and conservative in method, not in advance of public opinion, but responsive to its demands, the Democratic party is pledged to revise the tariff in a spirit of fairness to all interests.

But in making reduction in taxes, it is not proposed to injure any domestic industries, but rather to promote their healthy growth. From the foundation of this Government, taxes collected at the Custom House have been the chief source of Federal Revenue. Such they must continue to be. Moreover, many industries have come to rely upon legislation for successful continuance, so that any change of law must be at every step regardful of the labor and capital thus involved. The process of reform must be subject in the execution to this plain dictate of justice.

All taxation shall be limited to the requirements of economical government. The necessary reduction and taxation can and must be effected without depriving American labor of the ability to compete successfully with foreign labor, and without imposing lower rates of duty than will be ample to cover any increased cost of production which may exist in consequence of the higher rate of wages prevailing in this country.

Sufficient revenue to pay all the expenses of the Federal Government, economically administered, including pensions, interest, and principal on the public debt, can be got, under our present system of taxation, from the custom house taxes on fewer imported articles, bearing heaviest on articles of luxury, and bearing lightest on articles of necessity.

We, therefore, denounce the abuses of the existing tariff and, subject to the preceding limitations, we demand that Federal taxation shall be exclusively for public purposes and shall not exceed the needs of the Government economically administered.

The system of direct taxation known as the "Internal Revenue," is a war tax, and so long as the law continues, the money derived therefrom should be sacredly devoted to the relief of the people from the remaining burdens of the war, and be made a fund to defray the expenses of the care and comfort of worthy soldiers disabled in line of duty in the wars of the Republic and for the payment of such pensions as Congress may from time to time grant to such soldiers, a like fund for the sailors having been already provided and any surplus should be paid into the Treasury.

We favor an American continental policy based upon more intimate commercial and political relations with the fifteen sister Republics of North, Central, and South America, but entangling alliances with none.

We believe in honest money, the gold and silver coinage of the Constitution, and a circulating medium convertible into such money without loss.

Assrlting the equality of all men before the law, we hold that it is the duty of the Government, in its dealings with the people, to mete out equal and exact justice to all citizens of whatever nativity, race, color, or persuasion—religious or political.

We believe in a free ballot and a fair count and we recall to the memory of the people the noble struggle of the Democrats in the Forty-fifth and Forty-sixth Congresses, by which a reluctant Republican opposition was compelled to assent to legislation making everywhere illegal the presence of troops at the polls, as the conclusive proof that a Democratic administration will preserve liberty with order.

The selection of Federal officers for the Territories should be restricted to citizens previously resident therein.

We oppose sumptuary laws which vex the citizen and interfere with individual liberty we favor honest Civil Service Reform, and the compensation of all United States officers by fixed salaries the separation of Church and State and the diffusion of free education by common schools, so that every child in the land may be taught the rights and duties of citizenship.

While we favor all legislation which will tend to the equitable distribution of property, to the prevention of monopoly, and to the strict enforcement of individual rights against corporate abuses, we hold that the welfare of society depends upon a scrupulous regard for the rights of property as defined by law.

We believe that labor is best rewarded where it is freest and most enlightened. It should therefore be fostered and cherished. We favor the repeal of all laws restricting the free action of labor, and the enactment of laws by which labor organizations may be incorporated, and of all such legislation as will tend to enlighten the people as to the true relations of capital and labor.

We believe that the public lands ought, as far as possible, to be kept as homesteads for actual settlers that all unearned lands heretofore improvidently granted to railroad corporations by the action of the Republican party should be restored to the public domain and that no more grants of land shall be made to corporations, or be allowed to fall into the ownership of alien absentees.

We are opposed to all propositions which upon any pretext would convert the General Government into a machine for collecting taxes to be distributed among the States, or the citizens thereof.

In reaffirming the declaration of the Democratic platform of 1856, that, "the liberal principles embodied by Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence, and sanctioned in the Constitution, which make ours the land of liberty and the asylum of the oppressed of every Nation, have ever been cardinal principles in the Democratic faith," we nevertheless do not sanction the importation of foreign labor, or the admission of servile races, unfitted by habits, training, religion, or kindred, for absorption into the great body of our people, or for the citizenship which our laws confer. American civilization demands that against the immigration or importation of Mongolians to these shores our gates be closed.

The Democratic party insists that it is the duty of the Government to protect, with equal fidelity and vigilance, the rights of its citizens, native and naturalized, at home and abroad, and to the end that this protection may be assured, United States papers of naturalization, issued by courts of competent jurisdiction, must be respected by the Executive and Legislative departments of our own Government, and by all foreign powers.

It is an imperative duty of this Government to efficiently protect all the rights of persons and property of every American citizen in foreign lands, and demand and enforce full reparation for any invasion thereof.

An American citizen is only responsible to his own Government for any act done in his own country, or under her flag, and can only be tried therefor on her own soil and according to her laws and no power exists in this Government to expatriate an American citizen to be tried in any foreign land for any such act.

This country has never had a well-defined and executed foreign policy save under Democratic administration that policy has ever been, in regard to foreign nations, so long as they do not act detrimental to the interests of the country or hurtful to our citizens, to let them alone that as a result of this policy we call the acquisition of Louisiana, Florida, California, and of the adjacent Mexican territory by purchase alone, and contrast these grand acquisitions of Democratic statesmanship with the purchase of Alaska, the sole fruit of a Republican administration of nearly a quarter of a century.

The Federal Government should care for and improve the Mississippi River and other great waterways of the Republic, so as to secure for the interior States easy and cheap transportation to tide water.

Under a long period of Democratic rule and policy, our merchant marine was fast overtaking and on the point of outstripping that of Great Britain. Under twenty years of Republican rule and policy, our commerce has been left to British bottoms, and almost has the American flag been swept off the high seas.

Instead of the Republican party's British policy, we demand for the people of the United States an American policy.

Under Democratic rule and policy our merchants and sailors, flying the stars and stripes in every port, successfully searched out a market for the varied products of American industry.

Under a quarter of a century of Republican rule and policy, despite our manifest advantage of all other nations in high-paid labor, favorable climate and teeming soils despite freedom of trade among all these United States despite their population by the foremost races of men and an annual immigration of the young, thrifty and adventurous of all nations despite our freedom here from the inherited burdens of life and industry in the old-world monarchies, their costly war navies, their vast tax-consuming, non-producing standing armies despite twenty years of peace, that Republican rule and policy have managed to surrender to Great Britain, along with our commerce, the control of the markets of the world.

Instead of the Republican party's British policy, we demand on behalf of the American Democracy, an American policy.

Instead of the Republican party's discredited scheme and false pretense of friendship for American labor, expressed by imposing taxes, we demand in behalf of the Democracy, freedom for American labor by reducing taxes, to the end that these United States may compete with unhindered powers for the primacy among nations in all the arts of peace and fruits of liberty.

With profound regret we have been apprised by the venerable statesman through whose person was struck that blow at the vital principle of republics (acquiescence in the will of the majority), that he cannot permit us again to place in his hands the leadership of the Democratic hosts, for the reason that the achievement of reform in the administration of the Federal Government is an undertaking now too heavy for his age and failing strength.

Rejoicing that his life has been prolonged until the general judgment of our fellow-countrymen is united in the wish that that wrong were righted in his person, for the Democracy of the United States we offer to him in his withdrawal from public cares not only our respectful sympathy and esteem, but also that best homage of freemen, the pledge of our devotion to the principles and the cause now inseparable in the history of this Republic from the labors and the name of Samuel J. Tilden.

With this statement of the hopes, principles and purposes of the Democratic party, the great issue of Reform and change in Administration is submitted to the people in calm confidence that the popular voice will pronounce in favor of new men, and new and more favorable conditions for the growth of industry, the extension of trade, the employment and the due reward of labor and of capital, and the general welfare of the whole country.


Watch the video: Πλέον είμαστε ισχυροί για να υπερασπιστούμε κυριαρχικά μας δικαιώματα (July 2022).


Comments:

  1. Jamel

    in more detail, pliz. What's the mistake?

  2. Braeden

    Certainly. And I have faced it.

  3. Kenney

    Agree, this remarkable opinion

  4. Kam

    Thank you so much for your support, how can I thank you?

  5. Fontaine

    SPSB



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